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Word Formation (I parte) During this lesson we will learn : How new words are generated The most productive word formation devices in contemporary English . LEXICAL CHANGE Etymology studies of the history of words, their origin, and how their form and meaning changed over time.

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Word Formation (I parte) During this lesson we will learn : How new words are generated

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Word Formation (I parte)


Hownewwords are generated

The mostproductive word formationdevices in contemporary English



studies of the history of words, their origin, and how their form and meaning changed over time

etymology ex english guy
Etymology: ex. English «guy»

Guido (Guy) Fawkes, the leader of a plot to blow up the English Houses of Parliament in 1605

  • a person of grotesque appearance –after the burning of Fawkes’ effigy
  • 20th century, general reference for a man
  • replaced "fellow," "bloke," "chap" and other such words throughout the English-speaking world
  • both genders : “I like being with you guys!” (refers to a group of men and women).
lexical change we need new words why

We need new words



Two factors bring about new words in the languages of the world:


(the need to give a name to innovations)


(the need to give a name to new cultural habits mostly in Western languages)



invention of new terms

happens in rapidly changing cultures;

speedydissemination of information

--mass media, internet, etc.


robotics(1941), genocide (1943),

blackhole (1968)

blog, internet, google, emoticon



The most innovative fields generate the greatest number of neologisms

We can very quickly understand a new word in our language and accept the use of different forms of that new word


e-stalk-to stalk someone using internet searches and email.

  • flame war -rude and angry exchange of email messages
  • mailbomb-to intentionally disrupt a computer system by bombarding it with email
  • e-cruitment-online recruitment of employees; online submission of resumes and cover letters

snail mail-standard system of delivering mail which is very slow in contrast to electronic mail.

  • tweet-send short messages via Twitter
  • netbook–small laptop computer which weighs less than 3 pounds and has a 7 to 10 inch screen
  • hotspot–places where wireless internet access is available like airports, hotels, train stations, etc.
  • notspot-an area where there is slow internet access or no connection at all.

slumdog-very poor, underprivileged person who lives in an overcrowded a slum

  • viral marketing-marketing strategy that encourages people to pass along information to friends, family and colleagues through e-mail messages, blogs, video-sharing, etc., so that the marketing message spreads like a virus.
  • freemale- ?
    • a woman who prefers to stay single and independent to do things she wants when she wants

noughties-the years between 2000 and 2009 which contain a 'nought' (zero), as other decades are called the 'thirties', 'sixties', etc .

  • road rage-aggressive habits often resulting in violence against other drivers
  • sandwich generation-generation of people who care for the needs of their children as well as those of their own elderly parents
  • meritocracy-the idea that merit and individual effort determine one’s success rather than wealth or birth.

San Diego, California (March 3, 2007). The latest word to enter the English language is ‘obama’ in its many variations, according to the Global Language Monitor (GLM) (GLM tracks the growth and evolution of the English language around the globe).

The word is derived from the name, Barack Obama.

Obama- is used as a ‘root’ for an ever-expanding number of words, including: obamamentum, obamaBot(new!),obamacize, obamarama, obamaNation, obamanomics, obamican, obamafy, obamamania, and obamacam.

The list is growing.

john was asked a simple question but chose to obamacize his answer and bullshit us all
“John was asked a simple question,but chose to obamacize his answer, and bullshit us all.”
  • To speak in a philosophical way to try and make yourself seem more intelligent than you are.
  • To make Bullshit seem rational.
  • To speak with Big words and complicated sentence structure to try and make yourself seem superior to others.
tom was a mccain supporter before becoming an obamacan
“Tom was a McCain supporter before becoming an Obamacan.”
  • a republican who has crossed party lines in support of democratic presidential nominee Barack Obama.
the obamoron swears obama will eliminate the trade deficit
“The obamoronswears Obama will eliminate the trade deficit.”

Someone who is so taken in by Obama they have lost the ability to think.

A person who is showing the first signs of brain washing.



Obama Obama America Obama and Clinton obama and yourmama Obama Baby obamabashing Obama binBiden Obama bin Laden obamablack

Obama Breakdown Obama Busterobamaderangementsyndrome Obama Drama Obama Eff Up obamaeffectobama girl Obama Hangover

Obama letdown Obama magic Obama Mama Obama Necking Obama Nut Punch Obama SaidKnockYou Out OBAMA TO YO FACE Obama Zombie oBAMa! obama's grandma Obama's people













Word formation processes

. Coinage

. Eponyms

. Compounding

. Reduction

Blending Clipping Abbreviation Acronyms


. Derivation

. Conversion (functional shift)

. Borrowing (calque)

. shift

Lingua inglese I

kleenex aspirin hoover sandwich




Lingua inglese I

eponyms new words based on the name of a person place look for obama in the urban dictionary
- eponyms -

<New words based on the name of a person/place

(look for obama in the “Urban dictionary”)

Lingua inglese I

ex of eponyms
Ex. of eponyms
  • sandwich [the Earl of sandwich]
  • jeans [from Genoa, Italy where the cloth was first made Genoa(ˈdʒɛnəʊə) ]
  • fahrenheit [Gabriel Farenheit, German scientist]
  • volt [Alessandro Volta, Italian]
  • watt [James Watt, Scot scientist]
  • boycott [Charles Boycott, Irish]
- Websites -
  • Latin: interim, memorandum, agenda,p.m. and a.m.,sponsor,etc.
  • Greek: pneumonia, panorama, psychoanalysis, psychology, python
  • French: bureau, café, chauffeur, coup d'état, abattoir, attaché, á la carte
  • Sanskrit: chakra, cashmere, mahatma, nirvana, musk
  • Turkish: yogurt;
  • Bantu-zebra
  • Tahitian: tattoo;
  • Japanese-tycoon
  • Hindi -avatar, bungalow, jungle, karma,

pajamas, verandah, sentry, shampoo, yoga, pundit, bangle, cheetah

  • Tamil: cash, catamaran, curry

- Compounding -

combining two words to create a single word

compounds – independent words that can occur by themselves.

handbag; wallpaper, fingerprint, sunburn, photograph, buzzword

Lingua inglese I


Compounding -

Find words which express the following:

Someone who tells stories

Someone who cleans the windows

A room where you develop films

A cup of small dimensions used to drink coffee

A place to have a drink or a meal where wine is the main drink

A place where you can post letters, parcels or buy stamps

Lingua inglese I


Which among the examples are compounds?

Lipstick tea leaf Pick-up truck

Make up Makeup

couch potato weather forecast

Black tie black dress

Mother-in-law Post-it

Black bird blackbird


The new word has autonomous meaning and grammatical function

Lipstick tea leaf Makeup

couch potato Black tie blackbird

Lingua inglese I