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Organizational Behaviour The Individual. Attitudes - Job Satisfaction. Attitudes. Fairly stable emotional tendency to respond consistently toward specific targets (a function of what we think and feel) BELIEFS (our perceptions) +

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organizational behaviour the individual

Organizational BehaviourThe Individual

Attitudes -

Job Satisfaction

attitudes
Attitudes
  • Fairly stable emotional tendency to respond consistently toward specific targets (a function of what we think and feel)
      • BELIEFS (our perceptions)

+

      • VALUES (a broad tendency to prefer certain states of affairs over others)

>>>>>>>>>> ATTITUDES

>>>>>>>>>> BEHAVIOURS

defining job satisfaction
Defining Job Satisfaction
  • An attitude toward one’s job
  • An individual’s cognitive and affective reactions toward one’s job
  • Can include both facet satisfaction and overall satisfaction
theoretical explanations for dissatisfaction satisfaction
Theoretical explanations for dissatisfaction/ satisfaction:
  • Discrepancy Theory or Value Theory – The more people receive the outcomes that they value, the more satisfied they will be. The less people receive the outcomes that they value the more dissatisfied they will be.
theoretical explanations for dissatisfaction satisfaction5
Theoretical explanations for dissatisfaction/ satisfaction:
  • Fairness
    • Distributive Fairness – From equity theory. If people receive what they think they deserve (inputs & outcomes comparison is equitable) they are satisfied. If they do not receive what they think they deserve (inequitable) then dissatisfaction occurs.
    • Procedural Fairness – if the process used to distribute outcomes is considered reasonable then people are satisfied. If the process is considered unreasonable then dissatisfaction occurs.
theoretical explanations for dissatisfaction satisfaction6
Theoretical explanations for dissatisfaction/ satisfaction:
  • Disposition – Some people’s personality is more positive and other’s personality more negative. The more positive your personality the more satisfied, the more negative the personality the less satisfied
the riddle of the satisfaction performance relationship
The riddle of the satisfaction – performance relationship
  • Questions
    • Why is there no specific link between satisfaction and performance?
        • What makes employees happy?
        • Why would employees be performing but not happy?
    • How do you create a relationship between satisfaction and performance?
satisfaction and withdrawal
Satisfaction and withdrawal:
  • Absenteeism - A weak relationship to satisfaction. Dissatisfaction tends to lead to absenteeism.
    • Satisfaction is a better predictor of the number of times absent
    • Increasing satisfaction will only decrease absenteeism when this is the specific reason for the absenteeism.
satisfaction and withdrawal9
Satisfaction and withdrawal:
  • Turnover – a moderate relationship to satisfaction. Dissatisfaction tends to lead to turnover.
    • Turnover is more strongly tied to economic conditions and the availability of an alternative job.
cognitive dissonance
Cognitive dissonance
  • Attitude change
  • Feelings of tension which exist when certain cognitions (ideas/thoughts) are inconsistent with one another (can contradict our basic beliefs about ourselves). To reduce dissonance

1) downplay the importance

2) create additional cognitions to help reduce the tension

3) change the cognitions to bring it into line with the other, so that the inconsistency is reduces

do theories translate across cultures
Do theories translate across cultures?
  • Reinforcement theory?
  • Goal setting theory?
  • Need theories?
    • Maslow’s need hierarchy
    • Alderfer’s ERG
    • McClelland’s theory of needs
  • Equity theory?
  • Expectancy theory?
values across cultures
Values Across Cultures
  • Work Centrality
  • Hofstede
    • Power distance = acceptance of unequal distribution of power
    • Uncertainty avoidance = comfort with ambiguity
    • Masculinity/femininity = recognition of differentiated gender roles
    • Individualism/collectivism = individual independence vs loyalty to the group
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