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MGMT 330 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR. CHAPTER 1 THE MEANING AND SCOPE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR. WHAT IS OB?. A study of human behaviour , attitudes and performance in organization. Interaction between individual and organization

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MGMT 330 ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR


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    1. MGMT 330ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

    2. CHAPTER 1THE MEANING AND SCOPE OFORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

    3. WHAT IS OB? • A study of human behaviour, attitudes and performance in organization. • Interaction between individual and organization • An interdisciplinary – drawing on concepts from social and clinical psychology, sociology, cultural anthropology, industrial engineering and organizational psychology.

    4. UNIT OF ANALYSIS • Individual • Group • Organization

    5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OB AND MANAGEMENT • Organizational behaviour: • Interaction between individual and organization • Management: • A critical element in the economic growth of the country • Essential in all organized effort • The dynamic, life giving element in every organization

    6. WHY STUDY OB? • Cherrington identified three main objectives in organizational behaviour: • Explain • Identify • Control

    7. CHAPTER 2THE BEGINNINGS OF STUDIES

    8. CLASSICAL SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT • Consists of three streams of thought: • Bureaucratic organization • Max Webber • Administrative management • How organizations should be managed and structured • Henri Fayol and Chester Bernard • Scientific management • Application of scientific methods to increase individual worker’s productivity • Frederick Winslow Taylor, Henri Gant and Frank and Lillian Gilbreth

    9. HAWTHORNE STUDIES • The Test Room Studies • Interviewing Studies • Observational Studies

    10. HUMAN RELATIONS SCHOOL • Abraham Maslow • Motivation theory • Human needs • Human behaviour • Hierarchy of needs • Douglas Mc Gregor • Theory X and Y

    11. EARLY BEHAVIOUR THEORY • Mary Parker Follett • Management is getting things done with and through other people • Sharing of empowerment through working together between employer and employee • Conflict solution through integration • Hugo Munsterberg • Implement psychology approach in organization’s problem • Psychology study is very relevant in organizational behaviour

    12. DISCIPLINE OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • Psychology • Sociology • Political science • Economy • Ecology

    13. CHALLENGES IN ORGAZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • Business and industry towards globalization and international • Quality is more important • Society is concern on management ethics • Increase of diversity among employees

    14. CHAPTER 3BEHAVIOURAL THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION

    15. PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE • Psychology discipline is the most influent discipline in an organization • Focus on understanding individual’s behaviour • Biographic • Talent • Personality • Learning • Motivation

    16. SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE • Focus on group behaviour • Conflict and counselling • Communication

    17. POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE • Empowerment and authority are part of political discipline • Distribution of power • Direction of attempts to influence: • Upward • Downward • Laterally

    18. ECONOMICS PERSPECTIVE • Economics perspective helps managers to make decision • Techniques on problem solving • Decision making: • Individual • Group

    19. ECOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE • Organization as a sub-system of society • Environmental factors: • Suppliers • Distributors • Customers • Competitors

    20. CHAPTER 4INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANIZATION

    21. ATTITUDES • Reflects an individual’s background and experiences • Components of attitudes: • Affective component • Cognitive component • Behavioural component

    22. WORK ATTITUDES • Two key work attitudes: • Job satisfaction • Organizational commitment • Job satisfaction: • Sources of job satisfaction • Relation to job behaviour • Organizational commitment: • Sources of commitment • Relation to job behaviour

    23. PERCEPTION • The process by which people select, organize, interpret and respond to information form the world around them • Basic element in the perceptual process: • Environmental stimuli • Observation • Perceptual selection • Perceptual organization • Interpretation • Response

    24. PERCEPTUAL PROCESS • The perceptual process is a sequence of steps that begins with the environment and leads to our perception of a stimulus and an action in response to the stimulus. • The process is continual but we do not spend time thinking about the actual process that occurs when we perceive many stimuli that surround us at any moment

    25. ENVIRONMENTAL STIMULI • Everything in our environment that has the potential to be perceived • Includes anything that can be seen, touched, tasted, smelled, heard, movements of the arms and legs or change in position of the body in relation to objects in the environment • Objects and people in the immediate environment

    26. OBSERVATION • Taste • Smell • Hearing • Sight • Touch

    27. PERCEPTUAL SELECTION • Depends on several factors: • External factors: • Size • Intensity • Contrast • Motion • Repetition • Novelty and familiarity • Internal factors: • Personality • Learning • Motivation

    28. PERCEPTUAL ORGANIZATION • Perceptual organization • Continuity • Closure • Proximity • Similarity

    29. INTERPRETATION • Perceptual errors • Perceptual defense • Stereotyping • Halo effect • Projection • Expectancy effects • Attributions • Internal versus external causes • Causes for success and failure

    30. RESPONSE • Convert • Attitudes • Motivations • Feelings • Overt • Behaviour

    31. COGNITIVE DISSONANCE • Being used to describe the feeling of discomfort that results from holding two conflicting beliefs • Happens when an individual’s behaviour conflicts with beliefs that are integral to his or her self-identity • How to reduce? • Focus • Reduce • Change

    32. PERSONALITY TRAITS/ TYPES • Heredity • Experience • Environment • Situation

    33. PERSONALITY TRAITS THAT INFLUENCE ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR • Locus of control • Goal orientation • Authoritarianism • Machiavellianism • Self-esteem

    34. CHAPTER 5GROUP BEHAVIOUR IN ORGANIZATION

    35. WHAT IS A GROUP? • Members who share goals, communicate with one another over a period of time • Group classification: • Formal group • Informal group

    36. FORMAL AND INFORMAL GROUPS • Formal groups • Functional group • Task group: • Permanent task group • Temporary task group • Informal groups • Interest group • Friendship group

    37. WHY PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS? • Generating ideas • Networking • Task completion • Accuracy • Speed • Creativity • Cost

    38. GROUP NORMS AND DYNAMICS • Behavioural norms • Rules of behavioural that are shared by members • Main function is to regulate and standardize the behaviours viewed as important to members • Performance norms • Exists when three criteria have been met: • Standard of appropriate behaviour • Members must agree on the standard • Members must aware that group support the standard

    39. ROLE AND ROLE EXPECTATIONS • Role • Cluster of tasks and behaviours that a person should perform • Role expectation • What are you expected to do depending on what role you obtain • Example • If you are a police officer, then as your role as a police officer you would expected to protect the country

    40. GROUP MEMBER ROLES • Task-oriented role • Involves facilitating and coordinating work-related decision making • Initiating, seeking information, giving information, coordinating and evaluating • Relation-oriented role • Involves building team-centered feelings and social interactions • Encouraging members, harmonizing, encouraging participation, expressing, following

    41. GROUP MEMBER ROLES • Self-oriented role • Involves the person’s self-centered behaviours that are at the expense of the team or group • Blocking progress, seeking recognition, dominating, avoiding

    42. INFORMAL ORGANIZATION AND ITS IMPACT • Informal organization is defined by the patterns, behaviours and interactions that stem from personal rather than official relationship • Emphasis is on people and their relationships • Workers may create an informal group to go bowling, form a union, discuss work challenges

    43. EFFECT OF DIVERSITY ON GROUP PERFORMANCE • Poses a threat to the organization’s effective functioning • Expressed discomfort with the dominant group’s values • Members of the group want to become like the dominant • Positive multiculturalism

    44. CHAPTER 6ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE ANDITS IMPACT ON OB

    45. WHAT IS ORGANIZATION? • Organizations are formed so that people who share a common set of values or interest can work together towards achieving common objective • Elements of organization: • People • Objectives • Structure

    46. WHAT IS ORGANIZATION? • AmitaiEtzioni • Organization is a social unit or human grouping, structured for the purpose of attaining specific goals • Stoner • Organization is a pattern of relationships through which people under direction of managers pursue their common goals

    47. WHAT IS ORGANIZATION? • Vision • Mission • Strategy • Planning • Short term • Long term

    48. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE • Distribution and segregation of work • Organizational chart • Key factors in organizational structure • Environmental factors • Strategic factors • Technological factors • Integrative framework

    49. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE • Environmental factors • Suppliers • Distributors • Competitors • Customers • Strategic factors • Low cost • Differentiation • Focused

    50. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE • Technological factors • Technology • Task interdependence • Pooled interdependence • Sequential interdependence • Reciprocal interdependence • Integrative framework