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  1. A Five-Kingdom Survey The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  2. In taxonomy, organisms are classified into categories called taxa(singular, taxon). • A Speciesis given a name consisting of a species name and a Genus(plural, genera) name. For example, the domesticated dog is categorized into the genus Canisand is given the name Canis familiaris. Closely related animals are grouped in the same genus. Thus, the wolf, Canis lupis, and the coyote, Canis latrans, share the same genus with the domesticated dog. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  3. Genera that share related features are grouped in a Family. Related families, in turn, are grouped in Orders, which are grouped successively in Classes, Phyla(singular, phylum) (or divisionsfor fungi and plants), and finally, kingdoms. A good way to remember the successional order of taxa is to remember the phrase “Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Sand,” in which each word gives the first letter of each taxon from kingdom to species. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  4. Mephitismephitis(stripedskunk) Lutralutra(Europeanotter) Canisfamiliaris(domesticdog) Feliscatus(domesticcat) Canislupus(wolf) SPECIES GENUS Felis Mephitis Lutra Canis FAMILY Felidae Mustelidae Canidae ORDER Carnivora The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  5. MONERA PROTISTA PLANTAE FUNGI ANIMALIA Five kingdoms are currently used to categorize all organisms. The characteristics of each of these kingdoms, and important taxa within these kingdoms, are described below. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department


  6. Kingdom Monera • The single, distinguishing characteristic of organisms in the kingdom Monera is that they are prokaryotes. As prokaryotes, they lack nuclei and the various organelles of eukaryotes. • Prokaryotes possess a single “naked” chromosome consisting of a single DNA molecule without the proteins found in eukaryotes. • Some prokaryotes have plasmids, small circular DNA molecules, in addition to the major chromosome. • The cell walls of most prokaryotes contain peptidoglycans, a polysaccharide modified with polypeptides. In contrast, the cell walls of plants contain cellulose. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  7. Flagella, when present in monerans, consist of the globular protein flagellinarranged in helical chains (not tubulin arranged in 9 + 2 microtubule arrays as in eukaryotes). Prokaryotes without flagella move by a corkscrewmotion, while still others may exhibit a gliding motion through slimy material that they secrete. حركة المفتاح حركة انزلاقية

  8. Currently, many prokaryotes are organized by theirmode of nutrition, that is, how they metabolize resources, as follows: • Autotrophs Autotrophsmanufacture their own organic compounds. To do this, We have: Photoautotrophsuse light energy (as in photosynthesis) and Chemoautotrophsuse energy obtained from inorganic substances (as in chemosynthesis). Examples of inorganic substances used by chemoautotrophs are: -hydrogen sulfide (H2S), -ammonia (NH3), and -other nitrogen compounds (NO2–, NO3–). The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  9. 2. Heterotrophs Heterotrophsmust obtain their energy by consuming organic substances produced by autotrophs. Some heterotrophic bacteria are Parasites, obtaining their energy from the living tissues of a host. Others are Saprobes(or saprophytes), obtaining their energy from dead, decaying matter. Since saprobes contribute to the decay of organic matter, they are called Decomposers. Others are Symbiotic obtaining their energy from a symbiotic relationships with their host (Plants, animals act…) The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  10. Another feature important in describing prokaryotes is their ability to survive in the presence or absence of oxygen. • Obligate aerobesmust have oxygen to live. • Obligate anaerobescan survive only in the absence of oxygen. • Afacultative anaerobegrows in the presence of oxygen but, when oxygen is absent, can switch to an anaerobic metabolism. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  11. EUBACTERIA ARCHAEA Molecular analysis has revealed two distinct groups within the Monera, • The Eubacteria(“true” bacteria) and • The Archaebacteria. Monera The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  12. Archaebacteria Archaebacteria are distinguished by these three major features: 1.Their cell walls lack peptidoglycans. 2.Their ribosomes are more similar to ribosomes of eukaryotes than to those of eubacteria. 3.Their plasma membranes contain lipids that differ from those found in the plasma membranes of all other organisms. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  13. Endospore Eubacteria Various features are used to categorize the Eubacteria, as follows: • Theprincipal means by which the eubacteria are categorized is bytheir mode of nutrition, or how they metabolize resources. 2.Some eubacteria are distinguished by their ability to produce endospores, resistant bodies that contain the genetic material and a small amount of cytoplasm surrounded by a durable wall. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  14. 3.Eubacteria are distinguished by their means of motility, whether by flagella, gliding, or corkscrew motion. When flagella are present, they can be apical or posterior, or they can completely cover the cell. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  15. 4.Bacteria are classified into one of three shapes: cocci(spherical), bacilli(rod shaped), and spirilla(spirals). The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  16. 5.The cell wall distinguishes two broad groups of bacteria. Bacteria that stain positive with the Gram stain techniquehave a thick peptidoglycan cell wall, while Gram-negative bacteria have a thin peptidoglycan wall covered with a layer of lipopolysaccharides. Gram-negative Gram-positive In Gram-positive bacteria, the dark purple crystal violet stain is retained by the thick layer of peptidoglycan which forms the outer layer of the cell. In Gram-negative bacteria, the thin peptidoglycan layer in the periplasm does not retain the dark stain, and thepink safranin counterstainstains the peptidoglycan layer

  17. Some of the more common groups of bacteria follow: 1. Cyanobacteriaare photosynthetic, using chlorophyll a to capture light energy, splitting H2O, and releasing O2 as do plants. They also contain accessory pigments called phycobilins. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  18. Some cyanobacteria have specialized cells called heterocyststhat produce nitrogen-fixingenzymes. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  19. 2. Chemosynthetic bacteriaare autotrophs. Some of these are called nitrifyingbacteria because they convert nitrite (NO2–) to nitrate (NO3–). 3. Nitrogen-fixing bacteriaare heterotrophs that fix nitrogen. Many of these bacteria have mutualisticrelationships with plants; that is, both the bacteria and the host plant benefit from an interdependent relationship. The bacteria live in nodules, specialized structures in plant roots. nodules The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  20. 4. Spirochetesare coiled bacteria that move with a corkscrew motion. Their flagella are internal, positioned within the layers of the cell wall. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  21. Kingdom Protista Organisms in this kingdom may be: algaelike, animallike, funguslike, unicellular, or multicellular. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  22. A) Algaelike Algaelike (or plant-like) members of the Protista all obtain energy by photosynthesis. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  23. Some distinguishing characteristics of the phyla follow: • Euglenophyta,or euglenoids, have one to three flagella at their apical (leading) end. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  24. 2. Dinoflagellata,or dinoflagellates, have two flagella. One flagellum is posterior, while the second flagellum is transverse and rests in an encircling mid groove perpendicular to the first flagellum. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  25. Plastid 3. Chrysophyta,or golden algae, are golden yellow and have one or two apical flagella. 4. Bacillariophyta,or diatoms, have tests (shells) that consist of silica (SiO2). The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  26. 5. Chlorophyta,or green algae, have both chlorophyll a and b, have cellulose cell walls, and store their carbohydrates as starch. There is considerable variation in sexuality. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  27. Because of these various characteristics and evolutionary trends, the Chlorophyta are believed to be the ancestors of plants. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  28. 6. Phaeophyta,or brown algae, are multicellular and have flagellated sperm cells. Some brown algae are giant seaweeds, or kelps. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  29. 7. Rhodophyta,or red algae, contain red accessory pigments called phycobilins. They are multicellular, and their gametes do not have flagella. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  30. B) The protozoa The protozoa, or animal-like protists, are heterotrophs. They consume either living cells (thus being predatory or parasitic) or dead organic matter. Some important phyla follow:

  31. 1. Rhizopodaare amoebas that move by extensions of their cell body called pseudopodia. Pseudopodia encircle food and absorb it by phagocytosis. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  32. 2. Foraminifera,or forams, have tests )shells( usually made of calcium carbonate. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  33. 3. Zoomastigophora,or zooflagellates, are flagellated protozoa. Some mutualistic species digest cellulose in the guts of termites. Others are parasites, such as Trypanosoma, which is transmitted by the tsetse fly and causes African sleeping sickness in humans. Trypanosoma Trichonympha : symbiont in termite gut The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  34. 4. Sporozoaare parasites of animals. They have no physical means of motility. However, they form spores which are dispersed by one or more hosts that participate in the completion of their life cycles. The sporozoan that causes malaria, for example, spends part of its life cycle in mosquitos and part in humans. The life cycles of Plasmodium

  35. 5. Ciliophoraare distinguished by their cilia, which they use for moving and other functions. Because of specialized structures, such as mouths, anal pores, contractile vacuoles (for water balance), two kinds of nuclei (one large macronucleus and several small micronuclei), and other features, they are perhaps the most complex of all cells. Parameciumis this phylum’s most notable member. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  36. C) The fungus-like protists The fungus-like protists resemble fungi because they form either filaments or spore-bearing bodies similar to the fungi. • Acrasiomycota, the cellular slime molds, exhibit both funguslike and protozoalike characteristics during their life cycle. The Five Kingdom Dr. Abboud ElKichaoui Islamic University- Biology Department

  37. 2. Myxomycota, Called also plasmodial slime molds, grow as a single, spreading mass (or plasmodium) feeding on decaying vegetation.

  38. 3. Oomycota Oomycota Include the: • water molds, • downy mildews and • white rusts. They are either parasites or saprobes.

  39. White rusts White rusts caused by several species of the fungusAlbugo, and caused diseases to many vegetable species. White rust is one of the most destructive foliar. White rusts are frequently associated with downy mildew fungi, to which they are closely related, resulting in considerable injury from the combined attacks of these fungi.

  40. Kingdom Fungi Fungi grow as filaments called hyphae (singular, hypha). A mass of hyphae is called mycelium (plural, mycelia). Hypha Mycelium

  41. Some fungi have septa (singular, septum), or cross walls, which divide the filament into compartments containing a single nucleus. When filaments lack septa, they are multinucleate, or coenocytic. The cell walls of fungi consist of chitin, a nitrogen containing polysaccharide. Septate hyphae nonseptate hyphae

  42. Fungi are either parasites or saprophytes, absorbing the breakdown products from the action of digestive enzymes that they secrete. Many parasitic fungi have hyphae called haustoria that penetrate their host. parasites saprophytes

  43. Reproduction Fungi reproduce sexually and asexually Asexuallyoccur in several ways including • fragmentation(the breaking up of hyphae), • budding(the pinching off of a small hyphal outgrowth), and • asexual spores. Two kinds of asexual spores are described below: 1. Sporangiosporesare produced in saclike capsules called sporangia (singular, sporangium) that are each borne on a stalk called a sporangiophore. 2. Conidia(singular, conidium) are formed at the tips of specialized hyphae, not enclosed inside sacs. Hypha bearing conidia are called conidiophores.

  44. Sexually, threestages occur during sexual reproduction. • Plasmogamy, Fusing of cytoplasm of two cells, hyphae, spores. 2. Karyogamy.Fusing of nucleus of two cells, hyphae, spores. 3. Meiosis.

  45. Fungi are dominantly haploid, (1N) but most form temporary diploid(2N) structures for sexual reproduction. • Special form for fungi is Dikaryoticform in witch the cell contain two N not fused (N+N)

  46. Zygomycota Zygomycota lack septa, except when filaments border reproductive filaments. Zygomycetes reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae from different strains, followed by plasmogamy, karyogamy, and meiosis. Haploid zygospores are produced, which germinate into new hyphae. Bread mold is a typical zygomycete.

  47. 2. Ascomycota Ascomycota have septa and reproduce sexually by producing haploid ascospores. After plasmogamy of hyphae from unlike strains, a dikaryotic hypha produces more filaments by mitosis. Karyogamy and meiosis subsequently occur in terminal hyphal cells producing four haploid cells.

  48. These four cells divide by mitosis to produce eight haploid ascospores in a sac called an ascus (plural, asci). In many ascomycetes, the asci are grouped together into a specialized fruiting body, the ascocarp. The ascomycetes include yeasts (unicellular), powdery mildews, and truffles.