AP Language RHETORICAL ANALYSIS Test Strategy Olson and Bailey
What it is …What it is not • The analysis question asks the writer to analyze the methods that author employs in his or her writing to convey the author’s attitude, opinion, or conviction about some topic. • The analysis question does NOT ask the writer to agree, disagree, or qualify.
Some things NOT to do • Tell the reader the essay was well written • Tell the reader the essay held your interest • Reference the author by first name only or a nickname, “Honest Abe” – “Uncle Walt” • Whole name on 1st reference, last name after • Bulk up a sentence with jargon, complexity • Think and write clearly with appropriately controlled diction and syntax.
Discussion of Rhetorical Strategies • Diction • Identify key words • Negative or Positive Connotation • DO NOT say “author uses diction to create meaning” • Syntax • Short sentences are always abrupt, intense, and confrontational • Long Sentences are more thoughtful and permit reflection • Parallel Syntax functions like a train gathering steam • Rhetorical Questions manipulate the reader to provide the answer he or she wants • Repetition provides emphasis • Figures of Speech • Be versed in the main figures of speech (schemes & tropes) • Know what they do to the reader, for the writer • Rhetoric • Use PELIDS to identify and remember basic rhetorical strategies
PELIDS • P pathos • Most ads are emotional • Speeches use imagery and high connotation • Cannot say author uses pathos alone • Need to discuss purpose • E Ethos • Credibility • Need to discuss purpose • L Logos • Rational and reasonable • Is evidence valid?
PELIDS part 2 • I Inductive • Uses examples to convince reader of logical validity • Ask if examples are valid, then the validity of the claim • Deductive • Makes claims then builds an argument based you accepting those claims are true • Ask if claims are valid, then the validity of conclusions made by those claims • S Syllogism • Provides two premises and then offers a conclusion • God Created mankind, all of God’s creations are good, mankind is good