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Inter-linkages between Biological Diversity and Climate Change. Braulio Dias (CBD, Brazil) Member AHTEG 2002-3. Informal joint meeting of the CBD-SBSTTA and UNFCCC-SBSTA, Montreal 30 November 2005. Rationale for synergies and cooperation. Climate change is a major driver of biodiversity loss

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inter linkages between biological diversity and climate change

Inter-linkages between Biological Diversity and Climate Change

Braulio Dias (CBD, Brazil)

Member AHTEG 2002-3

Informal joint meeting of the CBD-SBSTTA and UNFCCC-SBSTA, Montreal 30 November 2005

rationale for synergies and cooperation
Rationale for synergies and cooperation
  • Climate change is a major driver of biodiversity loss
  • Biodiversity management can contribute to climate change mitigation and adaptation
  • Both Conventions contribute to sustainable development
ad hoc technical expert group
Ad hoc Technical Expert Group
  • Government nominated experts (invited through CBD and UNFCCC focal points)
  • Co-chairs: Outi Berghall and Robert Watson
  • Three meetings: 2002 - 2003
  • Input from IPPC
  • Expert & Government Review
  • Report welcomed by CBD SBSTTA and UNFCCC SBSTA
  • Parties of both conventions encouraged to make use of the report
ahteg report
AHTEG Report
  • Introduction
  • Biodiversity: linkages to climate change
  • Observed and projected impacts of climate change on biodiversity
  • Climate change mitigation and adaptation options: links to and impact of biodiversity
  • Approaches for supporting planning, decision making and public discussion
  • Selected case studies
ahteg report some findings
AHTEG Report - Some Findings
  • Significant opportunities for mitigating climate change, and for adapting to climate change while enhancing the conservation of biodiversity
  • LULUCF activities can play important role in reducing net emissions
  • Conservation of biodiversity and maintenance of ecosystem structure and function can contribute to adaptation strategies
mitigation activities
Mitigation activities
  • Afforestation and reforestation activities can have positive, neutral or negative impacts, depending on the ecosystem being replaced, and management options applied:
  • The best opportunities for positive effects can be achieved:
      • On degraded lands
      • with natural regeneration and native species
      • minimal clearing of pre-existing vegetation
      • chemical use is minimized
      • rotation lengths are extended
      • low impact harvesting methods are used
  • Avoided deforestation can provide the greatest biodiversity benefits
adaptation activities
Adaptation activities
  • Adaptation is necessary not only for projected changes but also because climate is already affecting many ecosystems
  • Reduction of other pressures on biodiversity (habitat conversion, over-harvesting, pollution, alien invasions) constitute important adaptation measures
  • Genetically-diverse population and species-rich ecosystems have a greater potential to adapt to climate change
  • Protection or restoration of ecosystems may provide important goods and services to compensate for likely losses
ahteg report some conclusions
AHTEG Report - Some Conclusions
  • The Ecosystem approach of the CBD provides a flexible management approach to address climate change mitigation and adaptation activities in a broad perspective
  • The Ecosystem approach is a strategy for the integrated management of land, water and living resources, involving consideration of :
    • Ecosystem goods and services
    • Sharing of costs and benefits
    • Management at appropriate scale(s)
    • Adaptive management
a range of tools available
A range of tools available ..

to assess the economic, environmental and social implications of different climate change mitigation and adaptation projects and policies, and aid decision making:

  • Environmental impact assessments
  • Strategic environmental assessments
  • Decision-analytic frameworks
  • Valuation techniques
  • Criteria and indicators
case studies
Case studies
  • Uganda – Mt Elgon National Park
  • Costa Rica – Ecomarkets
  • Finland – EIA of National Climate Strategy
  • Madagascar – Masaola National Park
  • Belize – Rio Bravo Climate Action Project
  • Sudan – Community-based Rangeland Rehabilitation for Carbon sequestration
  • Britain and Ireland – Climate Change Nature Conservation
  • Central America and Mexico – Mesoamerican Biological Corridor
  • Uganda – Tree Plantations for Carbon Credits
  • Romania – Afforestation of Degraded Agricultural Land
lessons from case studies
Lessons from case studies
  • Scope for afforestation, reforestation, improved forest management and avoided deforestation activities to be harmonized with biodiversity conservation.
  • Linking biodiversity with community livelihood options provides a good basis for CDM projects to advance sustainable development;
  • The neglect and/or omission of social, environmental and economic considerations can lead to conflicts and undermine success;
  • Countries and key stakeholders need to have the necessary information, tools and capacity to balance environment, social and development goals.
lessons from case studies1
Lessons from case studies …..
  • Some minimum environmental and social norms could avoid perverse outcomes.
  • Appropriate analytical tools and instruments can help guide decision making; adaptive management; and learning and replication
  • Baseline data, inventories and monitoring are required
  • The ecosystem approach provides a good basis to guide the formulation of climate change mitigation policies/projects and conservation of biodiversity.
ahteg report conclusions
AHTEG Report - Conclusions
  • Clear opportunity to implement mutually beneficial activities
  • These opportunities rarely realized because of lack of coordination at national and international levels
  • A range of tools available to assess impacts of projects and aid decision making
slide14

Second Ad hoc technical expert group on Biodiversity and Climate ChangeBiodiversity and Adaptation to Climate Change

second ad hoc technical expert group
Second Ad hoc Technical Expert Group
  • Government nominated experts
  • Co-chairs: Heiki Toivonen and Nagmeldin Goutbu Elhassen
  • First meeting: September 2005
  • Report considered by CBD SBSTTA 30 November 2005

-> Further assessment of the integration of biodiversity considerations in the implementation of adaption activities to climate change and advice for planning and implementing activities to address adaptation to climate change

biodiversity and adaptation to climate change key message 1

Biodiversity and Adaptation to Climate Change – key message 1

National policies, programmes and plans for adapation should take biodiversity considerations into account.

If biodiversity considerations are incorporated formally and routinely into adaptation planning, negative consequences can be minimized and positive benefits enhanced (see Annex 1 of the report)

biodiversity and adaptation to climate change key message 2

Biodiversity and Adaptation to Climate Change – key message 2

The maintanence and restoration of resilience is an essential element of adaptation to sustain the delivery of ecosystem goods and services.

Resilience is the ability of an ecosystem to maintain functions after being perturbed. Resilience decreases an ecosystem’s sensitivity

Biological factors, which confer resilience, include:

genetic heterogeneity

population size and distribution

ecosystem connectivity

biodiversity and adaptation to climate change key message 3

Biodiversity and Adaptation to Climate Change – key message 3

Effective collaboration and networking between biodiversity and climate change communities at all levels is essential for the successful implementation of adapation activities for biodiversity