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Convergence of Wireless Access and Spectrum Allocations
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  1. Convergence of Wireless Access and Spectrum Allocations Mar. 19, 2001 a Network Insight seminar, Sydney Seungtaik Yang Preisident, Information and Communications University P.O. Box 77 Yuseong, Daejon, KOREA e-mail: yang@icu.ac.kr

  2. Contents • Directions to Wireless Multimedia Era • Prospects for the Future Mobile Communications • Requirement for Future Spectrum Management • Korean Perspectives on Spectrum Management • Final Remarks

  3. Satellite GMPCS Cordless Telephone CT-2 CT-1 PHS DECT Digital Cellular PCS Analog Cellular Mobile Multimedia GSM DCS1800 IMT-2000 - W-CDMA - cdma2000 AMPS ADC(IS-54) IS-54 based PCS NMT PDC Upband IS-95 PCS(CDMA) CDMA TACS IS-95 Data Rate 8 kbps 8 - 114 kbps Up to 2 Mbps Over 2 Mbps 2010 (?) 4th Generation ‘90 2nd Generation 2000 3rd Generation Directions to Wireless Multimedia Era • Evolution of Mobile Communications ‘80 1st Generation

  4. 1,000 1,000 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 Traffic Increase in 21 Century (Bandwidth Explosion) CyberNetwork Machine-Machine Comm. Broadband Mobile IMT-2000, B-WLL Man-Man Comm. Telephone Communication Traffic (arb. unit) Next Gen.Internet Subscribers (Million) Information Explosion Mobile Cellular, PCS Internet 1988 1992 2008 (year) 1996 2000 2004

  5. IMT-2000 Service Coverage 9.6 kbps < 144 kbps < 384 kbps < 2 Mbps remotevehicular pedestrian stationary/indoor

  6. IMT-2000 Services • Services : Voice, Data, Video,& Multimedia as Mobile Internet Video Conference Video Telephony Teleshopping Electronic Newspaper, Data Service(Image,Music) Service Telebanking Data Base Access IPS e-mail Voice 10 kbps 100 kbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps Data Rate

  7. Prospects for the Future Mobile Communications • As voice is concerned, “anywhere access” is fully realized with 2-G mobiles, PABX phones, and cordless telephones. • As we enter into knowledge-based information society at the turn of the century, main focus on communication is being shifted towards ubiquitous high speed wireless multimedia/internet. “Anywhere access for data” will be the major topics for the next generation mobile systems like IMT-2000. • But, nobody is sure how much high speed data services will be needed when one is on move. While it is feasible to predict the ever-growing needs for high speed data, wherever one is located stationary. Mobility on fixed network is as important as that on mobile network.

  8. Converging Wireless Access as Last Mile Access • Public Land Mobile Systems like 2-G and 3-G : • Advantage : “wherever service” possible • Disadvantage : limited data speed and capacity, and relatively high tariffs • No tariffsand high data speed • Broadband Wireless LAN*: within campus or large premise, and offices • Home R.F.* or Personal LAN like Bluetooth : at home or on personal move • SRD (Short Range Communication Device) • Low Tariffs and high data speed, where the fixed system is not conveniently accessible • Broadband Fixed Wireless Access* • Broadband Satellite Internet Service* • Low tariffs and very high data speed • SCS (Stratospheric Communication System)* * possible application of microwave and mm-wave technology

  9. 4G as the Integration Wireless Digital Convergence 4th Generation Satellite/HAPS Satellite WPAN HAPS DVB Wireless1394 Broadband W-LAN SDR DAB W-CDMA IPv6 HIPERLAN Bluetooth BWA CDMA2000 Broadcasting GPRS LMDS WLAN PCS Indoors GSM MMDS IS-95 W-LAN Cellular Wireless Local Loop

  10. Hierarchical Layered Convergence • Global • Outdoor • Mobile / still / fixed • Coverage :100Km ~ • Max. Data rate : ~155Mbps • L,S,C,Ku,Ka, mm Wave band Satellite, HAPS / DVB, DAB Global layer handover • Cellular / Macro • Outdoor /Indoor • Mobile / still • Coverage : ~ 3Km • Max. Data rate : ~2Mbps • 800MHz ~ 2GHz CDMA GSM PCS Macro layer IMT2000 • Wireless LAN / Micro • Outdoor / Indoor • Still / fixed • Coverage : ~ 300M • Max. Data rate : ~ 54Mbps • 2.4GHz ~ 5.8GHz CDMA2000 WCDMA Micro layer WLAN HIPERLAN • Wireless PAN / Pico • Indoor • Still / fixed • Coverage : ~ 10M • Max. Data rate : ~1Mbps • 2.4GHz BWA LMDS MMDS handover Pico layer WPAN Bluetooth • Broadband Wireless Access • Outdoor • Fixed • Coverage : ~ 12.5Km • Max. Data rate : ~155Mbps • 20GHz ~ 60GHz (mm Wave band) Wireless 1394 All-IP Network fixed ( wired ) layer

  11. Broadband/Satellite Wireless Access Converging Stage IMT-2000 Phase2 System Beyond IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Phase1 Ultra High Speed WLAN Converging Stage of Various Wireless Access in the Future OutDoor Vehicle Pede- strian Still LMDS InDoor Still Wireless PAN Fixed Wireless LAN Wireless LAN Wired Line 1 10 100 0.1 Data Rate (Mbits/sec)

  12. Requirements for Next Generation(4-G) System • High speed data rate : • Vehicular : 2 Mbps • Pedestrian/ Indoor : 20 Mbps • IP based network structure : QoS guaranteed • Next generation Internet support : IPv6, Mobile IP • High Capacity : 5 ~ 10 times to 3-G • Lower system cost • Seamless services with fixed, and private networks like Wireless LAN, BWA etc. • Frequency band : 3 ~ 8 GHz, possibly higher • Frequency Spectrum Requirements : • ITU-R recommends additional 180 MHz bands for IMT-2000 services by 2010. • For 4-G, conservative estimates is at least 1,000 MHz by 2015

  13. Requirement for Future Spectrum Management • Facing More and More Complications • Ever Increasing Demands and Values for Frequency Spectrum • Convergence of Diverse Services • Differentiation among Services or Systems ambiguous • Especially for the 4-G Services • Appearance of New Unpredicted Services • Flexibility of Spectrum Use needed • Globalization and De-regularization Trends • Need of Long-and–Medium Term Frequency Spectrum Planning

  14. Korean Perspectives on Spectrum Management

  15. Status of Telecommunications in Korea • Population : 46 Millions / 99,300 sq. km • Seoul : 11.0 Millions / 605 sq. km • Pusan : 4.0 Millions / 436 sq. km • Status of Telecommunications • - Wireline Operators : • KT (Korea Telecom) : Major PTT, IMT-2000 • DACOM : PSDN, International & Long Distance • Hanaro : Local Loops, WLL • Onse Telecom : International & Long Distance • - Wireless Operators : • SK Telecom : Cellular, IMT-2000 • Shinsegi Telecom : Cellular • KT Freetel, KTM.com & LG Telecom : PCS • 8 Regional Pager Operators : Pager • TRS Operators ( 2 national, and 9 regional) : Digital TRS • 3 Mobile Data Operators : Wireless Data • Regulator : • MIC(Ministry of Information & Communication )

  16. Cellular & PCS Subscribers in Korea

  17. MIC’s Policy on Spectrum Management • Provision of Spectrum Resources for Future Demands • Technology Development and Incentive to Utilize for Higher Frequency Bands like Millimeter-wave Band • Publishing Long-term Frequency Planning • Efficiency Spectrum Utilization for Existing Bands of Use • Narrower Channel Bandwidth • Frequency Spectrum Sharing for Different Services • Trunking for Similar Services from Different Entities/Organizations • Clean Electromagnetic Environment

  18. Maximization of Spectrum Resource Utilization • Improvement of Spectrum Allocation Method • Adoption of Global Standards or Trends in Spectrum Allotment • Spectrum Reassignment through Actual Frequency Usage Statistics • Spectrum Allocation by Market-based Mechanism • Public Access to Current Frequency Database • Electronic Filing System for Procedure of Radio Station Licensing

  19. Current Spectrum Allocations Policy • Appraisal of Proposals with Pre-fixed Pricing(hybrid form) • Based on Economic Values and Technical Effectiveness • Existing Competitions in the Market • Needs for Accelerating Commercial Services Price Range Pre-fixed, and Fund Contributed for Telecommunication Development • Exclusive Right to Use for Specific Services, and Renewable with Additional Prices after Licensing Period of less than 20 yrs

  20. Allocation by Conventional Review Process with No Price • Based on Effectiveness of Intended Spectrum Use • Fairness and Conformity to Public Interest • Needs of Applicants • Technical and Financial Capabilities of Applicants • Spectrum Auction (X) • Once considered, but discarded due to negative reactions of general public, and many other adverse effects

  21. Status of Hot Service Licensing's • IMT-2000 Services ( Method 1) • Will license 3 Operators, each with 2*20 MHz Duplex Bands • 1 for cdma2000 system, 1 for W-CDMA system, and 1 with option to take either • Telecom. Development Fund ranged between 1 billon ~ 1.1 billion US$ • Commercial Services due by May, 2,002, but possibilities of delay • Result among 4 Applicants: ( Dec., 2,000) - 2 W-CDMA Licenses to SK Telecom and KT, with fund of 1.1 billion US$, each • - a cdma2000 applicant disqualified, and procedure • postponed

  22. Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting Services (method 2) • ATSC standard adopted in 1997 • Test Transmitting during 1999 ~ 2000, and at present, Trial Services in Seoul • Full Commercial on-air in late this year beginning from Seoul  Incumbent TV Broadcasters provided with Digital Channels on condition that after 2,006, returning existing analog channels • Satellite Broadcasting Service (method 1) • 1 license on Platform of KoreaSat II and III • Broadcasting Development Fund fixed at 17 million US$ • Administered by Independent Broadcasting Commission  Result among 2 Applicants : (Dec., 2,000) KT/KBS Consortium to be licensed with 17 million $ fund

  23. Frequency Allocation in Korea 894M-960M 1.71G -1.885G 1.98G-2.02G-2.025G Cellular CT GMPCS PCS IMT2000 (Uplink) IMT2000 (MSS uplink) (TDD) (TDD) IMT2000 (Downlink) 824M-894M 1.53G-1.66G 1.90G -1.92G - 1.98G 2.11G - 2.17G 3G 4G ? 2.17G-2.2G 2.4G-2.48G 2.7G-2.9G 5.47G-5.725G IMT2000 (MSS Downlink) WLL WLAN (802.11b Bluetooth) GMPCS IMT2000 (New) IMT2000 (New) WLAN (HIPER LAN/1) WLAN (HIPER LAN/2) WLAN (802.11a) 2.3G-2.4G 2.16G-2.2G 2.5G-2.69G 5.725G-5.875G 5.15G-5.35G 24.25G-26.7G 10G 17.7G-17.735G Sat. TV (Korea) HIPER LINK WLAN (reserved) WLAN (reserved) BWLL WATM (project) 17.1G - 17.3G 11.7G-12.2G 19.2G-19.3G 40G-60G

  24. Final Remarks • Each country has its own regulation and customs for frequency allocation, but globalization and roaming requirements ask for more conformance to global standards. • As demands for frequency use accelerated, harmful interference may occur between neighboring countries unless close frequency planning coordination worked out. • As more diverse services merged vertically or horizontally, spectrum management becomes more complicated. The worldwide study is required to resolve. • Perhaps, economic values of spectrum use may be deemed differently from country to country. Trend is to levy some price tags. • Spectrum cap or specific use of certain bands will be removed for improving flexibility of spectrum utilization.