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Convergence of Wireless Access and Spectrum Allocations Mar. 19, 2001 a Network Insight seminar, Sydney Seungtaik Yang Preisident, Information and Communications University P.O. Box 77 Yuseong, Daejon, KOREA e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Contents • Directions to Wireless Multimedia Era • Prospects for the Future Mobile Communications • Requirement for Future Spectrum Management • Korean Perspectives on Spectrum Management • Final Remarks
Satellite GMPCS Cordless Telephone CT-2 CT-1 PHS DECT Digital Cellular PCS Analog Cellular Mobile Multimedia GSM DCS1800 IMT-2000 - W-CDMA - cdma2000 AMPS ADC(IS-54) IS-54 based PCS NMT PDC Upband IS-95 PCS(CDMA) CDMA TACS IS-95 Data Rate 8 kbps 8 - 114 kbps Up to 2 Mbps Over 2 Mbps 2010 (?) 4th Generation ‘90 2nd Generation 2000 3rd Generation Directions to Wireless Multimedia Era • Evolution of Mobile Communications ‘80 1st Generation
1,000 1,000 800 800 600 600 400 400 200 200 0 0 Traffic Increase in 21 Century (Bandwidth Explosion) CyberNetwork Machine-Machine Comm. Broadband Mobile IMT-2000, B-WLL Man-Man Comm. Telephone Communication Traffic (arb. unit) Next Gen.Internet Subscribers (Million) Information Explosion Mobile Cellular, PCS Internet 1988 1992 2008 (year) 1996 2000 2004
IMT-2000 Service Coverage 9.6 kbps < 144 kbps < 384 kbps < 2 Mbps remotevehicular pedestrian stationary/indoor
IMT-2000 Services • Services : Voice, Data, Video,& Multimedia as Mobile Internet Video Conference Video Telephony Teleshopping Electronic Newspaper, Data Service(Image,Music) Service Telebanking Data Base Access IPS e-mail Voice 10 kbps 100 kbps 1 Mbps 10 Mbps Data Rate
Prospects for the Future Mobile Communications • As voice is concerned, “anywhere access” is fully realized with 2-G mobiles, PABX phones, and cordless telephones. • As we enter into knowledge-based information society at the turn of the century, main focus on communication is being shifted towards ubiquitous high speed wireless multimedia/internet. “Anywhere access for data” will be the major topics for the next generation mobile systems like IMT-2000. • But, nobody is sure how much high speed data services will be needed when one is on move. While it is feasible to predict the ever-growing needs for high speed data, wherever one is located stationary. Mobility on fixed network is as important as that on mobile network.
Converging Wireless Access as Last Mile Access • Public Land Mobile Systems like 2-G and 3-G : • Advantage : “wherever service” possible • Disadvantage : limited data speed and capacity, and relatively high tariffs • No tariffsand high data speed • Broadband Wireless LAN*: within campus or large premise, and offices • Home R.F.* or Personal LAN like Bluetooth : at home or on personal move • SRD (Short Range Communication Device) • Low Tariffs and high data speed, where the fixed system is not conveniently accessible • Broadband Fixed Wireless Access* • Broadband Satellite Internet Service* • Low tariffs and very high data speed • SCS (Stratospheric Communication System)* * possible application of microwave and mm-wave technology
4G as the Integration Wireless Digital Convergence 4th Generation Satellite/HAPS Satellite WPAN HAPS DVB Wireless1394 Broadband W-LAN SDR DAB W-CDMA IPv6 HIPERLAN Bluetooth BWA CDMA2000 Broadcasting GPRS LMDS WLAN PCS Indoors GSM MMDS IS-95 W-LAN Cellular Wireless Local Loop
Hierarchical Layered Convergence • Global • Outdoor • Mobile / still / fixed • Coverage :100Km ~ • Max. Data rate : ~155Mbps • L,S,C,Ku,Ka, mm Wave band Satellite, HAPS / DVB, DAB Global layer handover • Cellular / Macro • Outdoor /Indoor • Mobile / still • Coverage : ~ 3Km • Max. Data rate : ~2Mbps • 800MHz ~ 2GHz CDMA GSM PCS Macro layer IMT2000 • Wireless LAN / Micro • Outdoor / Indoor • Still / fixed • Coverage : ~ 300M • Max. Data rate : ~ 54Mbps • 2.4GHz ~ 5.8GHz CDMA2000 WCDMA Micro layer WLAN HIPERLAN • Wireless PAN / Pico • Indoor • Still / fixed • Coverage : ~ 10M • Max. Data rate : ~1Mbps • 2.4GHz BWA LMDS MMDS handover Pico layer WPAN Bluetooth • Broadband Wireless Access • Outdoor • Fixed • Coverage : ~ 12.5Km • Max. Data rate : ~155Mbps • 20GHz ~ 60GHz (mm Wave band) Wireless 1394 All-IP Network fixed ( wired ) layer
Broadband/Satellite Wireless Access Converging Stage IMT-2000 Phase2 System Beyond IMT-2000 IMT-2000 Phase1 Ultra High Speed WLAN Converging Stage of Various Wireless Access in the Future OutDoor Vehicle Pede- strian Still LMDS InDoor Still Wireless PAN Fixed Wireless LAN Wireless LAN Wired Line 1 10 100 0.1 Data Rate (Mbits/sec)
Requirements for Next Generation(4-G) System • High speed data rate : • Vehicular : 2 Mbps • Pedestrian/ Indoor : 20 Mbps • IP based network structure : QoS guaranteed • Next generation Internet support : IPv6, Mobile IP • High Capacity : 5 ~ 10 times to 3-G • Lower system cost • Seamless services with fixed, and private networks like Wireless LAN, BWA etc. • Frequency band : 3 ~ 8 GHz, possibly higher • Frequency Spectrum Requirements : • ITU-R recommends additional 180 MHz bands for IMT-2000 services by 2010. • For 4-G, conservative estimates is at least 1,000 MHz by 2015
Requirement for Future Spectrum Management • Facing More and More Complications • Ever Increasing Demands and Values for Frequency Spectrum • Convergence of Diverse Services • Differentiation among Services or Systems ambiguous • Especially for the 4-G Services • Appearance of New Unpredicted Services • Flexibility of Spectrum Use needed • Globalization and De-regularization Trends • Need of Long-and–Medium Term Frequency Spectrum Planning
Status of Telecommunications in Korea • Population : 46 Millions / 99,300 sq. km • Seoul : 11.0 Millions / 605 sq. km • Pusan : 4.0 Millions / 436 sq. km • Status of Telecommunications • - Wireline Operators : • KT (Korea Telecom) : Major PTT, IMT-2000 • DACOM : PSDN, International & Long Distance • Hanaro : Local Loops, WLL • Onse Telecom : International & Long Distance • - Wireless Operators : • SK Telecom : Cellular, IMT-2000 • Shinsegi Telecom : Cellular • KT Freetel, KTM.com & LG Telecom : PCS • 8 Regional Pager Operators : Pager • TRS Operators ( 2 national, and 9 regional) : Digital TRS • 3 Mobile Data Operators : Wireless Data • Regulator : • MIC(Ministry of Information & Communication )
MIC’s Policy on Spectrum Management • Provision of Spectrum Resources for Future Demands • Technology Development and Incentive to Utilize for Higher Frequency Bands like Millimeter-wave Band • Publishing Long-term Frequency Planning • Efficiency Spectrum Utilization for Existing Bands of Use • Narrower Channel Bandwidth • Frequency Spectrum Sharing for Different Services • Trunking for Similar Services from Different Entities/Organizations • Clean Electromagnetic Environment
Maximization of Spectrum Resource Utilization • Improvement of Spectrum Allocation Method • Adoption of Global Standards or Trends in Spectrum Allotment • Spectrum Reassignment through Actual Frequency Usage Statistics • Spectrum Allocation by Market-based Mechanism • Public Access to Current Frequency Database • Electronic Filing System for Procedure of Radio Station Licensing
Current Spectrum Allocations Policy • Appraisal of Proposals with Pre-fixed Pricing(hybrid form) • Based on Economic Values and Technical Effectiveness • Existing Competitions in the Market • Needs for Accelerating Commercial Services Price Range Pre-fixed, and Fund Contributed for Telecommunication Development • Exclusive Right to Use for Specific Services, and Renewable with Additional Prices after Licensing Period of less than 20 yrs
Allocation by Conventional Review Process with No Price • Based on Effectiveness of Intended Spectrum Use • Fairness and Conformity to Public Interest • Needs of Applicants • Technical and Financial Capabilities of Applicants • Spectrum Auction (X) • Once considered, but discarded due to negative reactions of general public, and many other adverse effects
Status of Hot Service Licensing's • IMT-2000 Services ( Method 1) • Will license 3 Operators, each with 2*20 MHz Duplex Bands • 1 for cdma2000 system, 1 for W-CDMA system, and 1 with option to take either • Telecom. Development Fund ranged between 1 billon ~ 1.1 billion US$ • Commercial Services due by May, 2,002, but possibilities of delay • Result among 4 Applicants: ( Dec., 2,000) - 2 W-CDMA Licenses to SK Telecom and KT, with fund of 1.1 billion US$, each • - a cdma2000 applicant disqualified, and procedure • postponed
Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting Services (method 2) • ATSC standard adopted in 1997 • Test Transmitting during 1999 ~ 2000, and at present, Trial Services in Seoul • Full Commercial on-air in late this year beginning from Seoul Incumbent TV Broadcasters provided with Digital Channels on condition that after 2,006, returning existing analog channels • Satellite Broadcasting Service (method 1) • 1 license on Platform of KoreaSat II and III • Broadcasting Development Fund fixed at 17 million US$ • Administered by Independent Broadcasting Commission Result among 2 Applicants : (Dec., 2,000) KT/KBS Consortium to be licensed with 17 million $ fund
Frequency Allocation in Korea 894M-960M 1.71G -1.885G 1.98G-2.02G-2.025G Cellular CT GMPCS PCS IMT2000 (Uplink) IMT2000 (MSS uplink) (TDD) (TDD) IMT2000 (Downlink) 824M-894M 1.53G-1.66G 1.90G -1.92G - 1.98G 2.11G - 2.17G 3G 4G ? 2.17G-2.2G 2.4G-2.48G 2.7G-2.9G 5.47G-5.725G IMT2000 (MSS Downlink) WLL WLAN (802.11b Bluetooth) GMPCS IMT2000 (New) IMT2000 (New) WLAN (HIPER LAN/1) WLAN (HIPER LAN/2) WLAN (802.11a) 2.3G-2.4G 2.16G-2.2G 2.5G-2.69G 5.725G-5.875G 5.15G-5.35G 24.25G-26.7G 10G 17.7G-17.735G Sat. TV (Korea) HIPER LINK WLAN (reserved) WLAN (reserved) BWLL WATM (project) 17.1G - 17.3G 11.7G-12.2G 19.2G-19.3G 40G-60G
Final Remarks • Each country has its own regulation and customs for frequency allocation, but globalization and roaming requirements ask for more conformance to global standards. • As demands for frequency use accelerated, harmful interference may occur between neighboring countries unless close frequency planning coordination worked out. • As more diverse services merged vertically or horizontally, spectrum management becomes more complicated. The worldwide study is required to resolve. • Perhaps, economic values of spectrum use may be deemed differently from country to country. Trend is to levy some price tags. • Spectrum cap or specific use of certain bands will be removed for improving flexibility of spectrum utilization.