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The belief that the US should expand its territory. Imperialism. Reasons for US Expansion.

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reasons for us expansion
Reasons for US Expansion
  • Many business leaders and politicians believed that US expansion was important because it would provide the county with more economic markets and greater potential for economic growth. Others felt the US need to expand in order to maintain its national security. Still, others believed it was part of the county’s destiny and crucial to maintaining a nationalist spirit.
significance of the pacific in us expansion
Significance of the Pacific in US Expansion
  • Both political leaders and businessmen in the US wanted to trade with China and other nations in SE Asia. They saw the Pacific Ocean as the pathway to these markets.
  • Spanish colony close to the US. When Cubans rebelled in the late 1800s it led to a war between Spain and the US
  • Spanish colony close to the US. When Cubans rebelled in the late 1800s it led to a war between Spain and the US.
spanish american war
Spanish American War
  • War fought between US and Spain in Cuba and the Philippines. It lasted less than three months and resulted in Cuba’s independence as well as the US annexing Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines.
platt amendment
Platt Amendment

This amendment to the Cuban constitution put limits on what the Cuban government could do, gave the US control of two naval based in Cuba, and allowed for US intervention in the region whenever the US believed it was necessary

panama canal
Panama Canal
  • Canal built by the US in Panama which allowed US ships to travel back and forth between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans without having to go around Sough America.
progressive era
Progressive Era

The period in US history in which reformers called for political, social, and economic change

  • Writers of the Progressive Era who exposed scandal and corruption in US businesses and government. They were given this label by President Roosevelt because they stirred up the “muck” in US society.
upton sinclair
Upton Sinclair
  • A famous muckraker who published a novel called The Jungle in 1906.
jane addams
Jane Addams
  • A progressive who opened Hull House as a settlement house in Chicago.
temperance movement
Temperance Movement
  • The movement that originally wanted to limit, and eventually advocated eliminating, alcohol.
women s suffrage movement
Women’s Suffrage Movement
  • The progressive movement that sought to win women the right to vote.
19 th amendment
19th Amendment
  • Constitutional amendment that gave women the right to vote.
plessy vs ferguson
Plessy vs. Ferguson
  • US Supreme Court decision that established segregation law3s as constitutional so long as facilities are equal. Established what became known as the doctrine of “separate but equal.”
  • National Association for the Advancement of Colored People; it was founded as an organization that devoted itself to the progress of the African-American community during the early 20th Century, and remains a prominent political voice among the community.
labor laws
Labor Laws
  • Laws governing working conditions.
17 th amendment
17th Amendment
  • Constitutional amendment which established that US senators would be elected directly by the people, rather than by state legislatures.

Political reform that gives citizens the power to hold special elections to remove corrupt officials from office before their terms were up

16 th amendment
16th Amendment

This amendment established an income tax and increased the federal government’s revenue

archduke ferdinand
Archduke Ferdinand

The heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary; his assassination sparked the beginning of WWI

u boats
  • Submarines used by the Germans to attack ships during WWI. Their attacks on US ships helped bring the US into the war.
unrestricted submarine warfare
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
  • Germany’s practice of attacking all ships, regardless of whether or not they were passenger ships, or belonged to nations Germany was already at war with. This policy eventually led to the US declaring war on Germany in WWI.
selective service act
Selective Service Act
  • US act passed by Congress during WWI authorizing a draft of young men for military service.
fourteen points
Fourteen Points

Peace proposal put forth by Woodrow Wilson following WWI

treaty of versailles
Treaty of Versailles
  • Treaty ending WWI. It imposed harsh conditions on Germany, established the League of Nations, and was never ratified by the US Senate.
eugene debs
Eugene Debs
  • Socialist leader in the US who ran for president several times and was eventually sentenced to prison for violating the Espionage and Sedition Acts.
  • Philosophy that the US should stay out of international conflicts and should not desire expansion.
chinese exclusion act
Chinese Exclusion Act
  • 1892 law which prohibited further immigration from China to the US for ten years. Eventually, the act was extended and remained in effect until 1943.
theodore roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
  • An assistant secretary of the Navy—he favored expansion. He resigned his position in Washington to lead the Rough Riders in the Spanish-American War. He eventually became vice president and then president after McKinley was assassinated. As president he secured the building of the Panama Canal and served during much of the Progressive Era.
the philippines
The Philippines
  • Island nation in the Pacific that sparked controversy in the US after the Spanish-American War. Many in the US wanted to annex the territory, while others felt it should be independent. After a two-year war, this country became an “unorganized territory” of the United States. Later, in 1946, this nation officially became an independent nation.
emilio aguinaldo
Emilio Aguinaldo
  • Filipino leader who launched a resistance movement against the US after the Spanish-American War. His resistance movement lasted more than two years before he was finally captured in 1901.
roosevelt s corollary
Roosevelt’s Corollary

Statement issued by Teddy Roosevelt which expanded upon the Monroe Doctrine. It stated that the US had the right to intervene in the region IF a nation had trouble paying its debts. Roosevelt wanted to make sure that imperialist nations did not use debt collection as an excuse to occupy territories in the Caribbean or Latin America


Those who supported reforms during the Progressive Era

ida tarbell
Ida Tarbell

Muckraker who revealed the abuses of the Standard Oil trust

the jungle
The Jungle
  • Novel written by Upton Sinclair that horrified readers as it uncovered the truth about the US meat packing industry. Its impact helped lead to the creation of a federal meat inspection program.
hull house
Hull House
  • Settlement house established by Jane Addams in Chicago for the purpose of helping the poor and immigrants.
18 th amendment
18th Amendment

Constitutional amendment which prohibited the making, selling or transporting on any alcoholic beverages in the United States. Commonly referred to as “Prohibition”, this amendment later proved to be a failure and was repealed

susan b anthony
Susan B. Anthony

Leader in the woman’s suffrage movement

  • Separation of people based on race.
w e b dubois
W.E.B. Dubois
  • Was the first Ph.D. graduate from Harvard University, and adamantly rejected justification for segregation. He argued that blacks should pursue occupation sin the humanities and in white collar fields. Unlike some other African-American leaders, he believed that blacks must be politically, legally, and socially active in order to obtain true equality. He helped organize a group of black intellectuals known as the Niagara Movement, and was instrumental in founder the NAACP.
progressives concerned with living conditions
Progressives concerned with living conditions
  • Progressives were concerned and wanted to improve the living conditions for the urban poor and immigrants.

Small, low-income apartments lived in and often shared by more than one family

triangle shirtwaist fire
Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
  • Event that especially contributed to the call for better workplace safety. It involved a fire that broke out at this factory in New York City. Many of the factory doors were locked to prevent employees from stealing. The fire killed 146 people, and led to increased demands for safer working conditions.
  • Political reform that allows citizens of a state to force a vote on a certain issue without having to wait for public officials to bring it up. If enough citizens signed a petition and/or made their voices heard, then the legislature could be compelled to address a particular concern.
  • Political reform that requires public officials to be elected by popular vote, rather than by party bosses or state legislatures.
woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson

President of the US who favored neutrality but eventually led the US into and during WWI. He proposed the League of Nations and Fourteen Points after the war, but was unable to convince the US to sign the Treaty of Versailles and join the League


Commercial cruise liner also carrying military supplies which was torpedoed by a German U-boat in 1915. 1,200 people died in the attack, including 128 US citizens. People in the US were furious! A wave of anti-German feeling swept across the country

zimmerman telegram
Zimmerman Telegram
  • German telegram sent to embassy officials in Mexico directing them to ask Mexico to attack the US if it declared war on Germany. In return, Germany promised to help Mexico win back land the US had acquired as a result of the Mexican-American War. It helped increase anti-German sentiment in the US.
  • An agreement to stop fighting. This stopped the fighting in WWI until the official treaty ending the war was signed. November 11, 1919.
espionage and sedition acts
Espionage and Sedition Acts
  • Laws passed by Congress during WWI which made it illegal to interfere with the draft, obstruct the sale of Liberty Bonds, or make statements considered disloyal, or critical of, the government, the Constitution, or the US military.
great migration
Great Migration

Mass migration beginning during WWI in which many African-Americans began leaving the South in growing numbers to pursue better economic opportunities in northern cities in hopes of escaping southern racism