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Breakthroughs & Heresies: Emerging Scholarship in ESL/Bilingual Education MDE ESL, Bilingual & Migrant Conference Breakout Session, May 4, 2012. Archimedes. Joan of Arc. John Wolfe MPS Multilingual Department firstname.lastname@example.org
Breakthroughs & Heresies: Emerging Scholarship in ESL/Bilingual EducationMDE ESL, Bilingual & Migrant ConferenceBreakout Session, May 4, 2012
Joan of Arc
MPS Multilingual Department
This life is not good but in danger and in joy.
(John Crowe Ransome, “Old Man Playing With Children”)
I am no man;I am dynamite.
Visible Learning for Teachers (2011) – What’s better than a Grail?
Visible Learning (2008) “Teaching’s Holy Grail”
On TV (d = -0.18)
On Parental Involvement (d = 0.51)
On Mobility (d=-0.34)
My role, as teacher, is to evaluate the effect I have on my students. It is to 'know thy impact', it is to understand this impact, and it is to act on this knowing and understanding.
Fundamentally, the most powerful way of thinking about a teacher's role is for teachers to see themselves as evaluators of their effects on students.
All progress monitoring is based on a “developmental progression” – a theory or model of how the learning should develop over time. (Think of Terell & Krashen’s “Natural Order Hypothesis.” We now have three of these Developmental Progressions.
Saunders & Goldberg, 2010from Improving Education for English Learners: Research Based Approaches
EdSource, Stanford College of Ed, Kenji Hakuta (2007), “Similar English Learners, Different Results”
Deriving Meaning from Context Clues
[W]hile essential for long-term vocabulary growth, incidental learning from context is at best an inefficient and unpredictable process. Research indicates the odds of deriving the intended meaning of an unknown word from written context is, unfortunately,
extremely low, varying from 5% to 15% for both native speakers and English languagelearners (Beck et al. 2002; Nagy et al. 1985).
The Problem with Dictionaries
When developing a classroom dictionary, lexicographers strive to conserve space in order to include as many entries as possible. Therefore, definitions are customarily crafted to be precise and concise, ironically omitting the very components that often are most critical to grasping the meaning of a new word: an accessible explanation using familiar language and an age-appropriate example that is relevant to children’s own experiences.
Fred Genessee et al., 2005, “English Language Learners in U.S. Schools: An Overview of Research Findings”
[The effects of classroom speaking activities] can vary as a function of ELLs’ level of language proficiency and with whom they interact in English. Less proficient students might benefit more than more proficient ELLs from increased interactions in English, specifically with their teacher s rather than from increased inter actions with their peers (Chester field et al., 1983). A similarly qualified assessment of language use effects comes from studies of paired and small group activities that integrate ELLs and English-proficient students.
Most programs for ELLs incorporate some provision for the integration or mixing of ELLs and native or fluent English speakers (Genesee, 1999). The assumption is that such integration, aside from its potential social benefits, provides ELLs with worthwhile language learning opportunities. The evidence, however, suggests that creating such opportunities and producing positive oral language outcomes involves more than simply pairing ELLs with native or fluent English speaker s. Careful consideration must be given to the design of the tasks that students engage in, the training of non-ELLs who interact with ELLs, and the language proficiency of the ELLs themselves (August, 1987; Johnson, 1983; Peck, 1987). If careful attention is not paid to these factor s, “mixing” activities tend not to yield language learning opportunities at all (Cathcart-Strong, 1986; Jacob, Rottenberg, Patrick, & Wheeler, 1996).
FromChapter 2, Research to Guide English Language Development Instruction. (William Saunders, UCLA and Pearson Achievement Solutions, and Claude Goldenberg, Stanford University), 11/19/08