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Unit #8: After the Cold War and New Nations . Pages: (736-748) and (751-752). Courtesy of: Ayo Jones. http://sjeltur.nl/wp-content/2009/02/usa-ussr.gif. Africa Overview. “Independent” since 1922. R ich in resources. Egypt gained total power over the Suez Canal in 1956.

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unit 8 after the cold war and new nations

Unit #8:After the Cold War and New Nations

Pages: (736-748) and (751-752)

Courtesy of:

Ayo Jones


africa overview
Africa Overview
  • “Independent” since 1922.
  • Rich in resources.
  • Egypt gained total power over the Suez Canal in 1956.
  • Ghana became the first black African country to win its independence from Britain.
  • Most of the French colonies gained independence in 1960.
  • Non- aligned nation- A newly independent nation that chose not to align itself with either the USA and USSR in the Cold War.
  • After gaining independence many of the countries were unstable.


  • 1952 Egyptian army officers, overthrew the government, by forcing King Farouk to abdicate.
  • 1956, British withdrew troops from Suez Canal, then Egypt nationalized the water way.
  • Israel, which was partaking in guerrilla warfare, worked with Britain and France to Retake the canal, and change governing policies.
  • Egyptian leader Nasser became a popular and respected Arab leader because he fought the British army and succeeded.
  • For assistance he looked toward the Soviet Union, to build the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River.
    • Very important hydroelectric innovation, worked to preserve the architecture.
  • Nasser died in 1970, Anwar Sadat followed him, and expelled all of the Soviet advisers.
  • This would cause issues for both the 1st and the 2nd world countries.
  • Sadat was assassinated, Hosni Mubarak followed him, and kept distance from the Soviet Union, and stayed in good acquaintance with the U.S.


  • “Congo Crisis”, in 1960 showed the lingering existence of the Cold War Super power.
  • Congo is rich with resources, such as, diamonds, copper, coffee crude oil.
  • King Leopold II of Belgium was the first to make Congo its colony.
  • Small group of educated Congolese, demanded national and political rights, resulted in elections for local self government.
  • Patrice Lumumba was a candidate that provided national and militaristic leadership.
  • Anti government rioting began in January of1959.
  • By January of 1960, at the Round Table Conference in Brussels, Belgium quickly decided that Congo would be independent on June 30th 1960.
  • Prime minister Lumumba loathed the Belgians, an gave a speech stating it quite eloquently .
  • The president of Congo Kasavubu, shortly after independence dismissed Lumumba and Lumumba did the same to Kasavubu.
  • They both went to the united nations for assistance, the UN didn’t help so Lumumba called the USSR, making Congo a part of a bigger fight.
  • Lumumba was murdered.
  • Disputes with in the country continued.
  • Congo is a great example of a developing country getting in the middle of the remains of the Cold War, this didn’t result well for Congo.


  • One Million French settlers won independence in 1962. After a long struggle that almost caused France a civil war.
  • Had the largest amount of North Africans, about 12% of the population.
  • Algeria was its own country with fair representation.
  • In 1940’s, reformist tried to created a nationalist, Arab-Islamic Algeria.
  • The Arab population was against foreign rule/involvement.
  • 1950’s Algerian revolution against French rule, led by the National Liberation Front.
  • Met by French repression.
  • Violence spread everywhere.
  • General Charles de Gaulle helped settle down the violence, and took over as president.
  • He granted Algeria independence. This was after 300,000 Algerians and 20,00o Frenchmen were killed.
  • Pretty much all of the European residents in Algeria left.
  • The amount of education in the community was very small.
  • Went into a period of guerilla warfare. Tried to start a centralized government .
  • Promoted Industrialization.
  • Natural gas resources were found.
  • Birth rate was high, many Algerians emigrated to France in search of jobs.

“Nationalist Party in Algeria“ http://www.historycentral.com/Mideast/Algeriaind.gif

mozambique angola and guinea
Mozambique, Angola and Guinea
  • Portugal held all of these places as colonies.
  • Mozambique and Angola held a coup in Portugal 1974.
  • Lead by dictators.

Guinea was governed harshly and had repressive labor policies.

    • Forced 65,000 to 100,000 to travel and work in the mines in South Africa.
  • Each person had to hold their identification passbook at all times.
  • Press was censored.
  • Police abused their power.
  • Portugal believed that holding African colonies, was would make them strong.
  • They called theses areas that they controlled “provinces”.
  • In 1961 revolts broke out in all three colonies.
  • Portugal fought the freedom fighters with the help of the white South Africa.
  • USSR and Cuba aided the freedom fighters in their cause.
  • In 1974 a military coup captured the government of Portugal and granted independence.
  • All of the newly independent countries had different ideas to rule their governments by.



client states and proxy wars
Client States and Proxy Wars
  • After independence many states were unstable, impoverished and challenged by social diversity.
  • The two major powers of USA and the USSR, took over smaller, usually third world countries, the resources.
  • They also supported their ideas such as Democracy and Communism.
latin america
Latin America
  • Fidel Castro began an revolution that overthrew the dictator Fulgencio Batista.
  • He was closely allied with the USSR so the US did not like them.
  • Americans feared Castro.
  • He worked cooperatively with other countries in the southern hemisphere.
  • Central American countries that had always been free, remained poor and divided, along with being dependent on the U.S
  • Most of these countries in Latin America were the definition of “third world” country.
  • To gain control of Nicaragua, the U.S helped start up some revolts in 1909, they used American Marines to support the cause.
  • 1933 Nicaraguan National Guard joined the Americans.
  • Nicaraguan leader, Augusto Cesar Sandino reject the Americans and fought them using guerilla warfare.
    • He was eventually murdered by a team member that double crossed him.
  • Anastasio Somoza Garcia, was in the group against them, and became the president, then made the government into a dynasty.
  • He was not pleased with the living conditions of the people .Revolutionary movement by Sandista Front Liberation
  • By the time this new revolutionary group came to power, 50,000 people were killed in guerilla war fare.
  • Many people died after the long years of civil war.
  • They now have a well set up democracy and have a good relationship with America.
guatemala and panama
Guatemala and Panama
  • Low economic power
  • Attacked by Honduras
  • Leader was Colonel Jacobi Arbenz
  • He supported technological innovation of Nicaragua.
  • He wanted a power plant.
  • They were the main producers of bananas
  • He tried to form a strong army with weapons from Poland.
  • Then his government fell.
  • The French had permission from Columbia to build the panama canal.
  • It was in the most northern part of the country.
  • The project failed and it went up for sale.
  • President Roosevelt encouraged a small scale revolt.
  • After the revolt they were called an independent country.
  • They always were under the US
  • Jimmy Carter agreed to let the Panama Canal be under their role in 2000.
  • The transfer took place on December 31, 1999
terrorism and the pursuit of peace
Terrorism and the Pursuit of Peace
  • Guerilla warfare.
  • Remained cold after the Cold War.
  • The goal of terrorism is to put fear into everyone.
  • Both Nazi Germany and Communist Russia Terrorized their people.