sentence structure and punctuation n.
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Sentence Structure and Punctuation. Sentence. A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought. Has 5 characteristics Starts with an uppercase letter and ends with a punctuation mark attached to the final word Has a subject. Has a verb. Has standard word order.

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sentence
Sentence
  • A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought.
  • Has 5 characteristics
    • Starts with an uppercase letter and ends with a punctuation mark attached to the final word
    • Has a subject.
    • Has a verb.
    • Has standard word order.
    • Has an independent clause (a subject and verb that can stand alone).
clauses
Clauses
  • Independent could stand by themselves as discrete sentences, except that when they do stand by themselves, separated from other clauses, they're normally referred to simply as sentences, not clauses.
  • Dependent cannot stand by themselves and make good sense. They must be combined with an independent clause so that they become part of a sentence that can stand by itself.
avoid fragments
Avoid Fragments
  • A sentence fragment is an incomplete sentence, an error that occurs when a sentence is missing either a verb or an independent clause.
  • To correct a sentence fragment, use two of the following strategies:
    • Introduce a verb.
    • Link the fragment to an independent clause.
fixing fragments
Fixing Fragments
  • Introduce a verb.
    • Fragment: The pressure loss caused by a worn gasket.
    • How would you fix this sentence?
    • The pressure loss was caused by a worn gasket.
  • Link the Fragment.
    • Ex: The article was rejected for publication. Because the data could not be verified.
    • Which sentence is the fragment?
    • How would you fix it?
subject verb agreement
Subject-Verb Agreement
  • The subject and verb of a sentence must agree in number, even when a prepositional phrase comes between them.
  • If the subject is singular/plural, the verb must be singular/plural.
    • Sentence 1: The result of the tests are promising.
    • Sentence 2: The result of the tests is promising.
    • Which sentence is correct?
comma
Comma
  • The comma is the most frequently used punctuation mark.
  • Uses:
    • In a compound sentence
    • To separate items in a series composed of three or more elements
    • To separate introductory words, phrases, and clauses from the main clause of the sentence
    • To separate a dependent clause from the main clause
avoid comma splice
Avoid Comma Splice
  • A comma splice is an error that occurs when two independent clauses are joined together by a comma.
  • Can be corrected 3 ways
    • Use a comma and coordinating conjunction (and, or, nor, but, for, so, or yet).
    • Use a semicolon.
    • Use a period or another form of terminal punctuation.
    • Ex: The 909 printer is our most popular model, it offers an unequaled blend of power and versatility.
period
Period.
  • Uses:
    • At the end of sentences that do not ask questions or express strong emotion (Declarative Sentence)
    • Abbreviations
question mark
Question Mark?
  • Used at the end of a sentence that asks a direct question (Interrogative Sentence)
exclamation point
Exclamation Point !
  • Used at the end of a sentence that expresses strong emotion. (Exclamatory Sentence)
semicolons
Semicolons ;
  • Use a semicolon to separate independent clauses not linked by a coordinating conjunction
    • The second edition of the handbook is more up-to-date; however, it is also more expensive.
  • Use semicolon to separate items in a series that already contains commas
    • The members elected three officers: Jack Resnick, president; Carol Wayshum, vice president; Ahmed Jamoogian, recording secretatry.
colons
Colons :
  • Use a colon to introduce a word, phrase, or clause that amplifies, illustrates, or explains a general statement.
    • The project team lacked one crucial member: a project leader.
  • Use a colon to introduce items in a vertical list if the sense of the introductory test would be incomplete without the list
    • We found the following:
      • Potassium
      • Cyanide
      • Asbestos
  • Use a colon to introduce long or formal quotations
    • The president began: “In the last year…”
hyphen
Hyphen -
  • Use hyphens to form compound adjectives that precede nouns
    • General-purpose register
  • Use hyphens to form some compound nouns
    • Go-between
  • Use hyphens to form fractions and compound numbers
    • One-half
  • Use hyphens to attach some prefixes and suffixes
    • Post-1945
  • Use hyphens to divide a word at the end of a line
    • We will meet in the pavil-
    • ion in one hour
dashes
Dashes --
  • To make a dash use two uninterrupted hyphens
  • Use dash to set off a sudden change in thought or tone.
    • Ex: The committee found—can you believe this?—that the company bore full responsibility for the accident.
  • Use dash to emphasize a parenthetical element
    • Ex: The managers’ reports—all 10 of them—recommend production cutbacks for the coming year.
  • Use dash to set off an introductory series from its explanation
    • Ex: Wet suits, weight belts, tanks—everything will have to be shipped in.
quotation marks
Quotation Marks “”
  • Used to indicate titles of short works.
    • Smith’s essay “Solar Heating Alternatives” was short but informative.
  • Used to call attention to a word or phrase used in an unusual way or in an unusual context.
    • A proposal is “wired” if the sponsoring agency has already decided who will be granted the contract.
  • Used to indicate a direct quotation
    • “In the future,” he said, “check with me before authorizing any large purchases.”
parentheses
Parentheses ()
  • Used to set off incidental information.
    • Ex: Galileo (1564-1642) is often considered the father of modern astronomy.
  • Used to enclose numbers and letters that label items listed in a sentence
    • Ex: To transfer a call within the office, (1) place the party on HOLD, (2) press TRANSFER, (3) press the extension number, and (4) hang up.
apostrophes
Apostrophes ‘
  • Used to indicate possession.
    • Ex: the manager’s lounge
  • Used to form contractions
    • Ex: I’ve
    • Shouldn’t
    • It’s
avoid run ons
Avoid Run-Ons
  • In a run-on sentence, two independent clauses appear together with no punctuation between them.
  • Can be corrected in the same three ways as a comma splice.
homework
Homework
  • Grammar Worksheet Packet
  • Due 6/28