sentence structure and phrase structure
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Sentence structure and phrase structure

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

Sentence structure and phrase structure - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 181 Views
  • Uploaded on

Sentence structure and phrase structure. aim. How do we define sentences and clauses ? What are subjects and predicates ? What is a phrase ? What types of phrases are there in Turkish ? What are phrase structure rules ? How are the following types of phrases organised ? NP PP

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Sentence structure and phrase structure' - ursala


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2
aim
  • How do we define sentencesandclauses?
  • Whataresubjectsandpredicates?
  • What is a phrase?
  • Whattypes of phrasesarethere in Turkish?
  • Whatarephrasestructurerules?
  • How arethefollowingtypes of phrasesorganised?
    • NP
    • PP
    • AP
    • ADVP andadverbials
    • VP
slide4
Intraditionalgrammar,

Sentence is thecompleteexpression of onethought.

BUT

Kaya parçası = onethought, not a sentence

Dün seninle sinemaya gitmek için geldim = onesentence, twothoughts

THEN

Considersentences in terms of clauses.

Clausesarethesyntacticunitsthathave a subjectand a predicate.

Sentence= oneormoreclausesduetotheirrecursiveproperties.

Seni görmeye geldim = sentencewithtwoclauses

immediate constituents of clauses subjects and predicates
Immediateconstituents of clauses: subjectsandpredicates
  • [Ahmet] [sessizce uyudu]
  • [semra] [açık havada dolaştı]
  • [sarı saçlı kız] [okulu bitirdi]
substitution test for consistency kim ne yapt
Substitution test forconsistencykim ne yaptı?
  • Constituent B is thesubject of thesentence
  • ConstituentC is thepredicateof thesentence
  • Predication: therelationshipbetweenthesubjectandthepredicate
  • Allsentencesconsist of a subjectand a predicate
  • A predicate is whatremains in a sentenceafterthesubject is excluded.
  • Subjectsandpredicatesarealsosisterslikecomplementsandheads.
subjects
subjects
  • A simplesubject is usually a NP
  • Subjects in Turkishareusuallytheinitial NP in a sentencewith a tensedverb.
  • Ünlü şarkıcı deniz kenarındaki lokantada balık yedi
  • Dün satın aldığım kitap çok pahalıydı
  • PronounsarealsoNPs
  • Ben, siz, o, onlar, bu, şu, etc
the pro drop parameter the subj pronoun can be dropped or not
Thepro-dropparameter(thesubjpronoun can be dropped, or not)
  • Turkish can havenullsubjects (pro-droplanguage)
  • languagessuch as English and French dontallownullsubjects(non- prodroplanguages)
  • Küçük bebek sincabı gördü - NP
  • O sincabı gördü - Pronoun
  • Sincabı gördü – nullsubject

Differentdiscoursefunctions:

  • Introducea newpersonintotheconversation
  • Showsthebaby has beenmentionedpreviously
  • Providesthetopiccontinuity
slide9
It is strangetouseovertsubjectswhenthespeakercontinuesto talk aboutthesameentity
  • Murat eve geldi, #Murat yemek pişirdi, # o yemek yedi, # O kitap okudu
  • Nullsubjectsarealsoconsideredto be NPs. Evenifthesubject is empty, thesentencestill has a subject-predicateconstituentstructure. Thenullsubject is representedwithpro (an emptypronpun)
subject verb agreement in sentences
Subject-verbagreement in sentences
  • Turkishverbshaveagreementsuffixes: numberandperson.
  • Number can be singularorplural
  • Person can be first, secondandthirdperson.
  • Ben çok çalışırım (firstpersonsingular)
  • Siz çok çalışırsınız (secondpersonplural)
predicates
predicates
  • Typicallyconstituentsthatfollowsubjects in sentences.
  • Express theactioncarriedbythesubject(arkadaşım yüzdü)
  • Providedescription of thesubject (Ahmet yakışıklı bir subaydır)
  • Show whathappenedtothesubject(adam yere düştü)
  • Express a psychologicalstateexperiencedbythesubject(Ahmet sevindi)
  • Almostuniversallypredicatescontainverbs, theymaycontainotherconstiuentssuch as direct/indirectobjectsandadverbs.
slide13
Phrasesaretheconstituentswhichfunction as subjects, objects, etc in a sentence.
  • A phrasemayconsist of oneormoreconstituentswith a syntacticsignificance.
  • Therearedifferenttypes of phrases in languagessuch as NP, VP, ADJP, ADVP, PP
  • Thecategory of theheaddeterminesthecategoryof thephrase.

NP – head N

VP – head V

slide14
Simple subjectsareusuallyNPsandpredicatesareVPs since predicateshaveverbs as theircentral element.
phrase structure rule
Phrasestructurerule
  • Phrasesarerule-governedconstituents.
  • Phrasestructurerulesareintendedto model mentalrepresentations of possiblephrases in a language.
  • S -> NP VP
  • Human beingsstore a limitednumber of rulestoproduceinfinitenumber of phrasesandsentences.
head parameter
Headparameter
  • Headdirectionality: thedirection of theheaddiffersfromonelanguagetoanother.
  • Turkish is a head final languagewhile English is headinitial.
  • Dün satın aldığım kitap – NP- headkitap
  • Thebookthat I boughtyesterday – NP- headbook
  • Kitap okumak – VP- headokumak
  • Read thebook – VP- headread
  • Makas ile – PP – headile
  • Withscissors – PP- headwith
slide18
NPsmostlyfunction as subjectsandobjects in sentences
  • A NP can consist of a singleword, a nounor a pronounormorethanoneword.
  • Thehead of a NP is almostalwaysinflectedforcase, ie. Nominative, accusative, genitive, possessive, etc.
  • Ünlü şarkıcı deniz kenarındaki lokantada balık yedi
  • İki akıllı kız marul salatası yediler
  • Dün satın aldığım kitap çok pahalıydı

Furtherexamples:

  • Filler, ev, boya, etc- commonNs
  • İstanbul, Mersin, Aslı, etc- properNs
  • Kırmızı kitap, en başarılı sanatçı, etc – modifiedby ADJP
  • Gelen adam, yeni aldığım kitap- consisting of Rel. Cl.
  • Demir kapı, deri koltuk, etc – attributiveNs
  • Ben, sen, o, bu, şu, etc - pronouns
slide19
Pronouns can alsostandforNPs
  • Benim kitabım, Canın kalemi, Onların evleri, bir ev, iki kardeş, bütün yollar, etc
  • TheaboveNPsconsist of determiners. Determinersarefunctionwords, whosefunctionsaretodeterminethereferentialandquantificationalproperties of nouns.
  • Quantificationaldeterminers: bazı, birkaç, her, bütün, etc
  • Referentialdeterminers: bu, şu, o, bunlar, benim, senin, etc.
slide20
Turkishdoes not have a definitearticle but an indefinitearticle «bir», which is also a determiner
  • Bir has twodifferentmeanings: 1. showsthenumber, 2. functions as a determiner
  • Bir güzel genç kız, iki güzel genç kız, etc
  • Güzel bir genç kız, ?güzel iki genç kız
  • A quantificationaldeterminerandtheindefinitearticlecannotoccur in thesame NP.

3. * benim her akıllı bir öğrencim

slide21
Tosumup, a NP in Turkishmayconsist of thefollowingtypes of constituents:
  • Thehead (obligatorybydefinition)
  • Oneormoreadjectivephrases
  • An attributivenoun
  • Oneormorerelativeclauses
  • Oneormoredeterminers

Thephrasestructurerule of NP in Turkish:

  • NP > (referentialdet.) (rel.cl) (quantificationaldet.) (adj) (indefinitearticle) (noun) Noun
  • [Det Ali’nin [RL dün yıkattığım] [ADJP güzel] [Head halısı]
slide22
İyi bir konser salonu bulduk
  • * iyi bir konser bulduk salonu
  • Phrasesaredeterminedaccordingtotheirfunctionandposition in a sentence.
slide24
Adpositionsarewordclassesthatexpress a relationshipbetweentwoentitiessuch as place, time, locationetc.
  • Prepositions = adposition + NP (like in English)
  • Postposition = NP + adposition (like in Turkish)
  • SomeTurkishpostpositionssuch as ile can becomeclitics (Nerminle)

Postpositionshavecomplementsthatcompletethem:

  • NP+gibi : bütün arkadaşları gibi
  • * gibi çalışıyor
  • Postpositions, likeverbs, assigncasetotheircomplements(Table, pp 198-199)
slide25
PP > NP P
  • PP > (Adv) NP P
slide27
It is difficulttodraw a linebetweenadjectivesandnouns in Turkish (as adjstakescaseandpluralendings as nouns)
  • Kız (N)- kızlar, genç (ADJ)-gençler, kıza, gence, etc
  • *daha kız, en kız (Ns not allowed in comparative, superlatives)
  • Daha genç, en genç (table, pp 201)
  • Kırmızı kitap (attributiveadjective)
  • Kitap kırmızıdır (predicativeadjective)

Adjectives as a head at final

  • Çok güzel, en kolay, yakın
slide28
Adjswith NP complements
  • [gitmeye gönüllü]
  • *[gönüllü]
  • Ahmet [annesine çok düşkün]
  • * Ahmet [düşkün]

SomeADJPsrequire PP complements

  • [ADJP [PP Cana karşı] duyarlı]
  • [ADJP [PP seninle] mutlu]
  • ADJP > (NP/PP) (Degree ADV) adj.
ad