Unnderstanding Longitude &amp; Latitude

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# Unnderstanding Longitude &amp; Latitude - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Unnderstanding Longitude &amp; Latitude. Typical Graph. This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with. The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points. Typical Graph. Y axis. Each point has two values:

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Unnderstanding

Longitude & Latitude

Typical Graph
• This is an example of a typical graph we are all familiar with.
• The graph is made up of different “points” with lines that connect the points.
Typical Graph

Y axis

• Each point has two values:
• The “X” value that runs along the horizontal “X” axis
• The “Y” value that runs along the vertical “Y” axis

X axis

Typical Graph
• X value is always stated first
• Followed by the Y value
• The “origin” is the point where the 2 axes intersect with a value of (0,0)

Y

(3,8)

(9,5)

X

(0,0)

Typical Graph
• A point can also have negative (-) values
• Negative X values are to the left of the origin (0,0)
• Negative Y values are below the origin

Y

(-X,+Y)

(+X,+Y)

(0,0)

X

(-X,-Y)

(+X,-Y)

Notes Page: Latitude and Longitude-We use latitude and longitude to find a particular location on Earth

latitude lines run horizontally. Latitude lines are also known as parallels and are an equal distance from each other. Degrees latitude are numbered from 0° to 90° north and south. Zero degrees is the equator, the imaginary line which divides our planet into the northern and southern hemispheres. 90° north is the North Pole and 90° south is the South Pole.

The vertical longitude lines converge at the poles and are widest at the equator (about 69 miles or 111 km apart). Zero degrees longitude known as the Prime Meridian is located at Greenwich, England (0°). The degrees continue 180° east and 180° west where they meet and form the International Date Line in the Pacific Ocean.

East West, North South on The Earth
• Let the X axis be the Equator.
• Let the Y axis be the Prime Meridian that runs through Greenwich outside of London.
• Lat/Long are the 2 grid points by which you can locate any point on earth.

Y

X

East West, North South on the Earth

N

• Let each of the four quarters then be designated by North or South and East or West.

W

E

S

East West, North South on the Earth
• The N tells us we’re north of the Equator. The S tells us we’re south of the Equator.
• The E tells us that we’re east of the Prime Meridian. The W tells us that we’re west of the Prime Meridian.

(N, W)

(N, E)

(S, W)

(S, E)

East West, North South on the Earth
• That means all points in North America will have a North latitude and a West longitude because it is North of the Equator and West of the Prime Meridian.

(N, W)

Prime Meridian

East West, North South on the Earth
• What would be the latitude and longitude directions in Australia?

?

Prime Meridian

If you said South and East , you’re right!

What is Latitude?
• Latitude is the distance from the equator along the Y axis.
• All points along the equator have a value of 0 degrees latitude.
• North pole = 90°N
• South pole = 90°S
• Values are expressed in terms of degrees.

90°N

Y

X

90°S

What is Latitude?
• Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 minutes.
• Each minute is divided into 60 seconds.

90°N

Y

X

90°S

This is also true of longitude.

What is Latitude?
• For Example:
• 37°, 02’,51’’N

90°N

Y

X

90°S

What is Longitude?
• Longitude is the distance from the prime meridian along the X axis.
• All points along the prime meridian have a value of 0 degrees longitude.
• The earth is divided into two parts, or hemispheres, of east and west longitude.

Y

X

180°W

180°E

What is Longitude?
• The earth is divided into 360 equal slices (meridians)
• 180 west and 180 east of the prime meridian

Y

X

180°W

180°E

What is Latitude?
• Our latitude and longitude might be:
• 37°, 03’,13’’N
• 76°, 29’, 45’’W

90°N

Y

X

90°S

So Where is (0,0)?
• The origin point (0,0) is where the equator intersects the prime meridian.
• (0,0) is off the western coast of Africa in the Atlantic Ocean.
See If You Can Tell In Which Quarter These Latitudes and Longitudes are located and label them on your map
• 1. 30°N, 60°E
• 2. 60°N, 120°W
• 3. 45°S, 150°W
• 4. 15°S, 30°W
• 5. 75°N, 90°E
• 6. 30°S, 105°E

A

B

D

C

Let's See How

You Did!

• 1. B
• 2. A
• 3. C
• 4. C
• 5. B
• 6. D

East is the direction of rotation of the Earth

Latitude: (90oN to 90oS)

Longitude: (180oE to 180oW)

Prime Meridian

0o Longitude

Tropic of Cancer

Latitude 23½o North

21st June

66½o

90oE

60oE

30oW

30oE

60oW

90oW

23½o

90o

22nd Sept

20th March

North Pole

Equator

Latitude 0o

23½o

900

22nd December

Tropic of Capricorn

Latitude 23½o South

Longitude 90o West

Longitude 90oEast

Longitude 60o West

Longitude 60o East

Longitude 30o West

Longitude 30o East

South Pole

Positioning on the Earth’s Surface

Latitude and Longitude together enable the fixing of position on the Earth’s surface.

Notes Page: The Sun, the Tropics and the Poles

The tropics are the two lines where the sun is directly overhead at noon on the two solstices . The sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of Cancer 23.50 N on June 21 and the sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of Capricorn 23.50 S on December 21

The area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn is known as the "tropics." This area does not experience seasons because the sun is always high in the sky.

Notes Page Time ZonesWhy do we need them? When it is dark and the middle of the night where you are, at some other place it is the early morning, somewhere else it is lunch time. Don't you think it would be pretty confusing to have it called "midnight" in all those places?

• The Earth is divided into 24 time zones!
• because the Earth Rotates
• 1 Time zone for every 150 of Longitude
• The Earth Spins 360 0 in 24 hours
• 3600 /24 hours
• We measure from The Prime Meridian in Greenwich England Every 15 0 to the East = +1 Hour Every 150 to the West = - 1 Hour

Sun Clock

• World Time Zone
• Time zones plus

4:00 PM

If it is 4:00 PM in New York What time will it be in Iowa, Utah, and Oregon?