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Unit 3C. Cell Structure and Function. Euk examples: - Protists (paramecium/ amoeba) - Fungi (mushrooms/ yeast) - Plants -Animals. Prok examples: -Bacteria (Eubacteria, archaebacteria). 2 Main Categories of Cells.

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unit 3c

Unit 3C

Cell Structure and Function

2 main categories of cells

Euk examples:

-Protists (paramecium/ amoeba) -Fungi (mushrooms/ yeast)

-Plants -Animals

Prok examples:

-Bacteria (Eubacteria, archaebacteria)

2 Main Categories of Cells
  • Prokaryotic Cells- DO NOT have “membrane bound” organelles and DO NOT have a nucleus to hold the DNA
  • Eukaryotic Cells- contain membrane bound organelles including a nucleus to hold the DNA
differences and similarities between the two cell types present absent
Differences and Similarities Between the Two Cell Types: (+ present, - absent)

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+ smaller

+ larger

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Bacteria

Protists, plants, fungi, animals

eukaryotes
Eukaryotes
  • Are organisms that have eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes do not)
  • Examples: animals, plants, fungi, protists
  • We will mainly be discussing the parts of eukaryotic cells and comparing prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells to each other.
organelle activity
Organelle Activity
  • Organelles- specialized structures within the cell. Each has a certain function.
    • Select an organelle from the bucket.
    • Use the textbook or websites like http://cellsalive.com/cells/3dcell.htm to research your organelle. Use the worksheet as a guide.
    • Have one group member give me his/her email address.
    • Add 1-2 slides to the Google drive presentation. Include a picture.
    • Present your organelle to the class.
cell organization
Cell Organization
  • The Nucleus (Euk only)
  • Controls all of the cell’s activities because it…
  • Contains and protects the DNA
  • Surrounded by the nuclear envelope double lipid bilayer with pores that regulates what enters/exits the nucleus
  • Contains the nucleolus area of the nucleus that makes ribosomes
cell organization continued
Cell Organization (continued)
  • Cytoplasm- the portion of the cell outside of the nucleus
  • Found in both prok and euk
  • Contains an aqueous solution called cytosol containing solutes needed for metabolic reactions
  • Contains the organelles (in euk)

Shade in the region showing the cytoplasm

Shade in the region showing the cytosol

cell organization continued1
Cell Organization (continued)
  • Organelles- specialized structures inside the cell (“Little Organs”)
  • Mostly found in the cytoplasm
  • If membrane bound (surrounded by a membrane)- only found in euk
organelles and cell structures
Organelles and Cell Structures
  • The following slides discuss the organelles of a cell, they fall into the following categories:

1. Cellular boundaries

2. Organelles that capture and release energy

3. Organelles that store, clean up, and support

4. Organelles that build proteins

cellular boundaries
Cellular Boundaries

Boundaries keep certain things inside and certain things outside of the cell.

• Cell Walls

• Cell Membranes

a cell walls
A. Cell Walls
  • Support, shape, and protect the cell
  • Lie outside the cell membrane
  • Have openings allowing small molecules in and out (semipermeable, not selectively permeable).
  • Found in most prokaryotes, many eukaryotes (protists, fungi, and plant cells), but NOT in animal cells
    • Why not?
cell wall composition
Cell Wall Composition
  • In bacteria- contains various carbohydrates
  • In protists- carbs and silica (SiO2)
  • In fungi- chitin (a type of carb)
  • In Plants- mostly cellulose (polysaccharide made of glucose monomers)
b cell or plasma membranes
B. Cell (or Plasma) Membranes
  • Found surrounding all cells (prok or euk)
  • Made of a lipid bilayer
  • Protects and supports the cell
  • Regulates what comes in and out of the cell- selectively permeable
the fluid mosaic model

Proteins in Membrane

The Fluid Mosaic Model
  • Flexible and contains many transport proteins that help move materials in and out and help cells communicate.
  • Carbs on the outer surface help with communication and identification of the cell.

Carbohydrates attached to proteins

organelles that capture and release energy
Organelles that Capture and Release Energy

Are membrane bound and thus found in eukaryotic cells only

• Chloroplasts- found in plant cells; are the location of photosynthesis

• Mitochondria- found in both plant and animal cells; location of energy production (ATP)

a chloroplasts and photosynthesis
A. Chloroplasts and Photosynthesis
  • Contain a green colored pigment called chlorophyll which captures light energy to power photosynthesis
  • Have two membranes (inner and outer).
  • Contain a fluid called stroma, stacks called granna of folded structures called thylakoids surrounded by thylakoid membranes.

Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O→ C6H12O6 + 6O2

slide18
If the pigment chlorophyll causes the green color in plants, do all plant parts contain chlorophyll? Support your answer.
  • Some prokaryotic bacteria are photosynthetic. Do They contain chloroplasts?
b mitochondria and cellular respiration
B. Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration
  • Contain its own unique DNA, proteins, and ribosomes; can self replicate
  • Contains an outer membrane, and a fluid called matrix inside a highly folded inner membrane.
  • This creates folds called cristae for the reactions of cellular respiration.

Cellular Respiration: 6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

mitochondria and cellular respiration
Mitochondria and Cellular Respiration
  • Which do you think would contain more mitochondria, a heart muscle cell or a skin cell?
  • Why?
organelles that store clean up and support
Organelles that Store, Clean up, and Support
  • Storage: vacuoles (store material) and vesicles (move materials around the cell)
    • Vacuoles form by the combining of many vesicles
  • Clean up: lysosomes- contain enzymes to digest materials
  • Support: the cytoskeleton- meshwork that allows for movement of the cell and materials throughout the cell
    • Contains the centrioles (help the cell divide)
a vacuoles storage
A. Vacuoles“Storage”
  • Membrane bound organelles found in eukaryotic cells
  • In Plant cells- typically have one large central vacuole to store water, nutrients, wastes, and enzymes.
    • Helps maintain turgor pressure- the pressure from inside the full vacuole that pushes the cell membrane against the cell wall and helps the plant cell stay rigid
vacuoles storage cont
Vacuoles“Storage” (cont.)
  • In Animal cells- have varying numbers of small vacuoles that function to store large molecules like:
    • food brought in by a vesicle during endocytosis
    • Molecules waiting to be released by exocytosis
vacuoles storage cont1
Vacuoles“Storage” (cont.)
  • In Unicellular aquatic organisms- there are specialized vacuoles called contractile vacuoles which function to pump excess water from the cell’s cytoplasm
  • Think back to the unit on cell transport
    • Why are contractile vacuoles necessary in unicellular aquatic organisms?
b lysosomes clean up
B. Lysosomes“Clean up”
  • Found in eukaryotes, though mainly in animal cells (rare in plant cells)
  • Membrane bound sacks that are the site of hydrolysis (digestion)
  • Have an acidic pH and are filled with digestive enzymes
  • Produced by the golgi apparatus
lysosomes clean up
Lysosomes“Clean up”
  • Why is it important for the digestive enzymes to be bound by the lysosome, rather than being in the cytoplasm?
c cytoskeleton support

-Thicker strands- microtubules

-Thinner strands- microfilaments

C. Cytoskeleton“Support”
  • Just like your body depends on your skeleton (bones) to keep your shape, so do cells.
  • Not membrane bound so also in prokaryotes
  • Consist of long networks of protein strands called microfilaments and microtubules.
the cytoskeleton support continued

The amazing marching proteins!

The Cytoskeleton“Support”(continued)

microfilaments – provide a framework and help move the cell

- made of the protein actin

microtubules – Act as tracks for organelles to travel on as they move throughout the cell

- help in cell reproduction and division by forming centrioles (not found in plant cells)

- made of proteins called tubulins

more on microtubules

Ex: sperm cell- one flagella

Other microorganisms- more than one flagella

Cilia

Ex: Paramecium

Flagella

More on Microtubules
  • May extend outside of the cell to form cilia (tiny hairs) or flagella (long tail-like hairs)- help the cell move
organelles that build proteins

Rough ER tags and modifies the proteins and sends them to the Golgi in vesicles

Ribosomes make proteins and insert them into the Rough ER

The Golgi packages the proteins and sends them off in vesicles to where they are needed

Organelles that build Proteins
  • Ribosomes
  • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Golgi Apparatus
ribosomes
Ribosomes

NOT membrane bound- so also found in prokaryotes

Produced by the nucleolus (which is where?)

There are two types of Ribosomes

Free Ribosomes – move around in the cytoplasm

ER Ribosomes – are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum

Chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own ribosomes! (remember endosymbiosis?)

ribosome structure
Ribosome Structure
  • Two parts (subunits)
  • One large subunit and one small subunit that fit together
  • Both made of RNA bound with proteins
endoplasmic reticulum er
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Network of membrane bound tubes and sacks. Constantly forming and breaking down.
endoplasmic reticulum er1
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)

There are two types of ER

  • Rough ER- has ribosomes on its surface
      • Proteins are made at the ribosomes and inserted into the rough ER.
      • The rough ER tags/modifies the proteins; telling the cell where to send them
er continued
ER (continued)

2. Smooth ER- no ribosomes on its surface

- NOT involved in the synthesis of proteins

- Helps make lipids

- Site of detoxification of drugs like alcohol and sedatives

- cells in people who use these drugs from large amounts of smooth ER.

golgi apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
  • Series of sack-like membranes, drawn like a stack of pita bread
  • Found between the rough ER and cell membrane
  • Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins coming from the rough ER
  • Sends the finished proteins to their destination by vesicles which bubble off of the main stacks. (Proteins may be sent either elsewhere in the cell or to its surface to leave the cell)
  • Lysosomes are formed from golgi vesicles
    • The “FedEx” of the cell
differences between plant and animal cells
Differences between Plant and Animal Cells

Plant cells share all the common features of animal cells, but also contain some additional organelles.

• chloroplasts to convert sunlight into food

chloroplast

vacuole

• Every plant cell is surrounded by a cell wall, and typically contains large central vacuole.

cell wall

• Plant cells do NOT have centrioles

label the following eukaryotic cells
Label the following Eukaryotic Cells

A

B

C_______________________

D

E

AB

AC

AD

AE

BC

BD

BE

CE

Which cell – the one on the right or the left – is the Animal cell?_________

Plant cell?___________

cells can function individually and work together in order for the organism to function as a whole

Cells can function individually and work together in order for the organism to function as a whole

homeostasis in unicellular organisms
Homeostasis in Unicellular Organisms
  • Unicellular organism- an organism made of just 1 cell.
    • Can perform all necessary functions for life
    • Must maintain homeostasis
      • By growing, responding to their environment, transforming energy, and reproducing.
homeostasis in multicellular life
Homeostasis in Multicellular Life
  • Multicellular organisms are made of many cells that work together
  • Also must maintain homeostasis
    • To do this, cells become specialized for certain tasks and communicate with each other.
cell specialization
Cell Specialization
  • Different cells take on different roles
  • The process by which cells specialize is called cell differentiation
cell specialization cont
Cell Specialization (cont.)
  • Example: human tracheal cells- millions of cilia sweep out debris that you breathe in. Filled with mitochondria because need constant supply of ATP to do this day and night!
  • What other cells are specialized in the human body?
cell specialization cont1
Cell Specialization (cont.)
  • Pick any two cell types from the diagram– compare and contrast their specialized structure, and relate this to the cells’ function in the body.
levels of organization
Levels of Organization
  • Cells that work together form tissues
  • Tissues that work together form organs
  • Organs that work together form organ systems
  • Organ systems work together to make a fully functioning organism
  • Example 1:
slide48
Levels of

Organization

(continued)

doctor help
Doctor! Help!
  • Your Job: Read the information about these diseases and determine which organelle malfunction is causing the disease.