Unit 3C. Cell Structure and Function. Euk examples: - Protists (paramecium/ amoeba) - Fungi (mushrooms/ yeast) - Plants -Animals. Prok examples: -Bacteria (Eubacteria, archaebacteria). 2 Main Categories of Cells.
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Cell Structure and Function
-Protists (paramecium/ amoeba) -Fungi (mushrooms/ yeast)
-Bacteria (Eubacteria, archaebacteria)2 Main Categories of Cells
Protists, plants, fungi, animals
Shade in the region showing the cytoplasm
Shade in the region showing the cytosol
1. Cellular boundaries
2. Organelles that capture and release energy
3. Organelles that store, clean up, and support
4. Organelles that build proteins
Boundaries keep certain things inside and certain things outside of the cell.
• Cell Walls
• Cell Membranes
Are membrane bound and thus found in eukaryotic cells only
• Chloroplasts- found in plant cells; are the location of photosynthesis
• Mitochondria- found in both plant and animal cells; location of energy production (ATP)
Photosynthesis: 6CO2 + 6H2O→ C6H12O6 + 6O2
Cellular Respiration: 6O2 + C6H12O6 → 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
microfilaments – provide a framework and help move the cell
- made of the protein actin
microtubules – Act as tracks for organelles to travel on as they move throughout the cell
- help in cell reproduction and division by forming centrioles (not found in plant cells)
- made of proteins called tubulins
Rough ER tags and modifies the proteins and sends them to the Golgi in vesicles
Ribosomes make proteins and insert them into the Rough ER
The Golgi packages the proteins and sends them off in vesicles to where they are neededOrganelles that build Proteins
NOT membrane bound- so also found in prokaryotes
Produced by the nucleolus (which is where?)
There are two types of Ribosomes
Free Ribosomes – move around in the cytoplasm
ER Ribosomes – are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Chloroplasts and mitochondria have their own ribosomes! (remember endosymbiosis?)
There are two types of ER
2. Smooth ER- no ribosomes on its surface
- NOT involved in the synthesis of proteins
- Helps make lipids
- Site of detoxification of drugs like alcohol and sedatives
- cells in people who use these drugs from large amounts of smooth ER.
Plant cells share all the common features of animal cells, but also contain some additional organelles.
• chloroplasts to convert sunlight into food
• Every plant cell is surrounded by a cell wall, and typically contains large central vacuole.
• Plant cells do NOT have centrioles
Which cell – the one on the right or the left – is the Animal cell?_________