Curriculum in Higher Education. Jeffrey C. Sun. Why study curriculum?. Epistemology: the study of knowledge What distinguishes true [or adequate] knowledge from false [or inadequate] knowledge?
Jeffrey C. Sun
What distinguishes true [or adequate] knowledge from false [or inadequate] knowledge?
Practically speaking, this question translates into issues of scientific methodology: how can one develop theories or models that are better than competing theories?
Bill Tierney raises the questions …
How do we define knowledge?
How have what we defined as knowledge changed over time?
Whose interests have been superceded or ignored by such forms?
How do we transmit knowledge?
What is the method used to determine what counts for knowledge?
Who controls the decision-making?
Who participates and who does not in curricular decisions?Knowledge – what is it?
Vegemite on toast
Drinking a "Red Eye" (whiskey, coffee, Tabasco sauce, a raw egg, pepper and orange juice)
None of the above
Q: Urban legend has it that fast food chain KFC can no longer use its full name, "Kentucky Fried Chicken," because...
The trademark is owned by another company
Its products aren't really made in Kentucky
Its products are supposedly made from a genetically manipulated organism that isn't really chicken
Market testing showed that consumers like shorter product names
None of the aboveTrivia …
Scam?: Identity thieves trick the unwary into revealing their personal details by telling them they've failed to report for jury duty and warrants for their arrest are being issued.
The major proponents of essentialism include Horace Mann, William Bagley, James Koerner, Hyman Rickover, Paul Copperman, Theodore Sizer, Arthur Bestor, and E. D. Hirsch.
The major proponents of perennialism include Plato, Aristotle, Thomas Aquinas, Robert Hutchins, Mortimer Adler, and Mark Van Doren.
The major proponents of progressivism include William James, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, Jean Jacques Rousseau, and John Dewey .
The major proponents of reconstructionism include George Counts and Theodore Brameld.
assumption of education is perennial or everlasting
ability to reason as characteristic which distinguishes human beings from other animals
Education is concerned with training rational faculties
People are everywhere alike and that education should be the same for everyone.
Perennialism is a culturally conservative educational theory centered on the authority of tradition and the classics. It believes that truth is universal and does not depend on the circumstances of place, time, or person.Philosophical (Levine, 1978)
holds that education should be based upon essential or prescribed body of knowledge dealing with the heritage of humankind
Subject matter tends to be abstract or conceptual rather than applied and practical
No one approach; just teacher-centered, utilize tried-and-true forms of pedagogy and learning
Premise: learning is hard work that is often done unwillingly by students
Essentialism refers to the "traditional" or "Back to the Basics" approach to education. Its goal is to instill in students the "essentials" of academic knowledge and moral development.Philosophical (Levine, 1978)
Education is based on life experiences;
Student interest drives education, not predetermined
Instructor is expert/adviser
Problem-oriented as opposed to subject based
Methods of critical thought are life-long skills while bodies of knowledge are continually changing.
Progressivism is a movement that gained attention in the early 1900s for its sharp contrast to prevailing, conservative educational approaches. Progressivism promotes the idea that students should be encouraged as independent thinkers, creative beings, and expressive about their feelings.Philosophical (Levine, 1978)
Society and education require constant reconstruction
programs of study should be interdisciplinary
education is being used to build a new social order and educate individuals into new citizenry behavioral roles
a rationally educated humankind can direct the process of social and conscious evolution toward progressive goals and thus control humankind’s destiny; and
educational socialization must now be both globalist and futuristic in its orientation
Reconstructionism accepts the progressive design of education but adds an additional ingredient: an emphasis on reconstructing society. It conceptualizes education as an institution for social engineering.Philosophical (Kneller, 1971; Levine, 1978)
PLANNING & DESIGN
(Tyler, 1950, pp. 1-2)
(Tyler, 1950, pp. 1-2)
a. Academic disciplines
b. Student development
c. Social problems
d. Selected competencies
a. Locus of learning
b. Curriculum content
c. Design of program
d. Flexibility of program
“universals of human culture” (Hutchins, 1967)
“generally involves study in several subject areas and frequent aims to provide a common undergraduate experience for all students at a particular institution” (Levine, 1978, p. 3).General Education
Content: subject matter or content within which learning experiences are embedded
Sequence: arrangement of subject matter intended to lead to specific outcomes for learners
Learners: information about the learners (i.e. intended audience)
Instructional Processes: instructional activities for learning
Instructional Resources: materials and settings to be used
Evaluation: strategies used to determine if skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behavior change (dispositions) as a result of learning
Adjustment: Changes in plan to increase learning, based on experience and evaluationAcademic Plan
state boards of higher education (quality mandates and resources)
competition with other postsecondary providers
disciplinary and other intellectual influences and currents
elementary and secondary education trends
expectations of graduate and professional schools
perceived quality standards (public expectations, literature)
external grant money (from state and federal governments, private
foundations for faculty research, curricular and pedagogical innovations)
--faculty power blocs, subcultures
--faculty resistance to change (curriculum, pedagogy, evaluation/assessment)
--institutional culture (attitudes, beliefs, sage/heritage, traditions)
--faculty teaching load
--faculty and student critical mass
--faculty teaching load
--student demands and enrollment patterns
--institutional assessment mandates and practices
--resources (financial, capital, human)
--curricular advisory committees
--faculty and administrative turnoverFactors/Forces Affecting Curriculum