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The UCLA Body Matrices II. David Frederick Anne Peplau UCLA Department of Psychology Acknowledgements: Thanks to Jim Compton of SNSL Imagination for assistance creating the UCLA Body Matrices (SNSLimagination@aol.com)

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the ucla body matrices ii

The UCLA Body Matrices II

David Frederick

Anne Peplau

UCLA Department of Psychology

Acknowledgements: Thanks to Jim Compton of SNSL Imagination for assistance creating the UCLA Body Matrices (SNSLimagination@aol.com)

Contact: David Frederick at enderflies1@aol.com. Available at the following website: dred.bol.ucla.edu

problems in measuring body satisfaction
Problems in Measuring Body Satisfaction
  • Women’s Bodies
    • Forms used to assess women’s body types confound body fat and breast size, or only manipulate one of these features.
  • Men’s Bodies
    • Similarly, forms for men appear to confound muscularity with body fat, or only manipulate one of these features.
  • Hand-Drawn Images
    • All existing forms utilize crude hand-drawn silhouettes of men and women.
the ucla body matrices
The UCLA Body Matrices
  • We introduce the UCLA Body Matrices as an improvement over existing forms. These new matrices provide more levels of body fat for women and muscularity for men
  • The UCLA Matrix of Men systematically varies:
    • 4 levels of body fat, from slender (10)* to heavy (40)
    • 7 levels of muscularity, from non-muscular (10) to very muscular (70)
  • The UCLA Matrix of Women systematically varies:
    • 4 levels of breast size, from small (10) to large (40)
    • 8 levels of body fat, from slender (10) to heavy (80)

*The numbers correspond to equally spaced intervals according to the software used, not objective measurements (e.g., not 10% body fat).

pick a number vs scaled versions
Pick a Number vs. Scaled Versions
  • Pick A Number Version:
    • Each one of the images is numbered
    • Participants are simply asked to indicate which image best represents their current body, the ideal body, the typical body, etc.
    • The advantage is this version is very simple for participants
  • Scaled Version
    • Participants indicate which image best represents their current body, etc., using a latitude-longitude system.
    • This is more complex for participants but allows them to indicate intermediate values (e.g., they can indicate that their breast size is between levels 30 and 40).
  • *Matrices can be viewed at: http://dfred.bol.ucla.edu/UCLAbody.html
present research
Present Research
  • 1. Do rating of one’s current body, ideal body, and the discrepancy between these ratings predict measures of:
    • Body Mass (BMI)?
    • Breast Cup Size
    • Overall body satisfaction (Appearance Evaluation Scale; (Cash, 2000)?
    • Drive for muscularity (McCreary & Sasse, 2000)?
    • Breast size satisfaction (Forbes & Frederick, under review)
  • 2. Do people perceive a difference between their current and their ideal body?
  • 3. Do people perceive a difference between the typical and most attractive body type of the other sex?
  • 4. Do the measures show high test-retest reliability?
study 1 pick a number version
Study 1: Pick A Number Version
  • Participants were 102 men and 255 women in a psychology class who participated in exchange for extra credit.
  • Mean Age = 18.94
  • 26% White, 41% Asian, 14% Hispanic, 19% Other.
validating the ucla body matrices association to bmi and breast size
Validating the UCLA Body Matrices:Association to BMI and Breast Size
  • Linear Regressions predicting BMI
    • Men (Muscularity and Body fat to BMI):
      • Model R = .74
    • Women (Breast Size and Body fat to BMI):
      • Model R = .71
  • Linear Regressions predicting cup size
    • (Breast size and Body Fat self-reported cup size):
      • Model R = .76
association of matrix choices to body image
Association of Matrix Choices to Body Image

* The discrepancies are absolute values. For example, Fat Discrepancy = [ABS (current – ideal body fat level.)]

men and women s ratings of female body fat
Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Body Fat

Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women perceived that their current body did not differ from the typical body, but they were heavier than their ideal.

Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men perceived that the most attractive body was thinner than the ideal body.

men and women s ratings of female breast size
Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Breast Size

Women’s Ratings of Breast Size: Women did not perceive a difference between their current breast size and the ideal breast size, but did desire larger ideal breasts.

Men’s Ratings of Breast Size: Men indicated that the typical breast size was smaller than the ideal breast size.

men and women s ratings of male body fat
Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Body Fat

Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men perceived that they were slightly thinner than average, and slightly heavier than their ideal.

Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women did not perceive a difference between the typical and ideal level of body fat.

men and women s ratings of male muscularity
Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Muscularity

Men’s Ratings of Muscularity: Men perceived that they were slightly more muscular than average, but were much less muscular than their ideal.

Women’s Ratings of Muscularity: Women indicated that the most attractive male body was much more muscular than the typical male body.

study 2 scaled version
Study 2: Scaled Version
  • Participants were 112 men and 122 women at local campus hangouts who participated in exchange for being entered in a lottery.
  • Mean Age = 22.88
  • 40% White, 25% Asian, 12% Hispanic, 23% Other.
validating the ucla body matrices association to bmi and breast size16
Validating the UCLA Body Matrices:Association to BMI and Breast Size
  • Linear Regressions predicting BMI
    • Men (Muscularity and Body fat to BMI):
      • Model R = .73
    • Women (Breast Size and Body fat to BMI):
      • Model R = .67
  • Linear Regressions predicting cup size
    • (Breast size and Body Fat self-reported cup size):
      • Model R = .76
association of matrix choices to body image17
Association of Matrix Choices to Body Image

* The discrepancies are absolute values. For example, Fat Discrepancy = [ABS (current – ideal body fat level.)]

men and women s ratings of female body fat18
Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Body Fat

Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women did not perceive a difference between their body and the typical body, but were heavier than their ideal body.

Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men indicated that the most attractive body was thinner than the typical body.

men and women s ratings of female breast size19
Men and Women’s Ratings of Female Breast Size

Women’s Ratings of Breast Size: Women did not perceive a difference between their current body and the typical body, but desired larger breasts.

Men’s Ratings of Breast Size: Men indicated that the most attractive breast size was larger than the typical breast size.

men and women s ratings of male body fat20
Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Body Fat

Men’s Ratings of Body Fat: Men believed they were slightly thinner than average, but slightly heavier than their ideal.

Women’s Ratings of Body Fat: Women did not perceive a difference between the typical and most attractive body fat level.

men and women s ratings of male muscularity21
Men and Women’s Ratings of Male Muscularity

Men’s Ratings of Muscularity: Men perceived that they were slightly more muscular than average, but much less muscular than their ideal body.

Women’s Ratings of Muscularity: Women indicated that the most attractive body was more muscular than the typicial male body.

summary of findings
Summary of Findings
  • The results suggest that the matrices are useful measures of body image and body type preferences. Responses were:
    • Strongly related to BMI and self-reported breast cup-size
    • Associated with global body satisfaction, and breast size/muscularity satisfaction
    • Congruent with past research on body type preferences