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PREVIOUS DEVICE. IMPROVED DEVICE. Screening and Questionnaires. 5 Min. Resting BP Assessment. Assess Barorecptor Sensitivity (BRS). 15 Min. Seated Rest. 5 Min. Seated Rest. Insert Cannula. Assess Emotions (EAS). Plasma Sample. Drug Infusion Over 10 Min. 30 Min. Adaptation.

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PREVIOUS DEVICE

IMPROVED DEVICE

Screening and

Questionnaires

5 Min. Resting

BP Assessment

Assess Barorecptor

Sensitivity (BRS)

15 Min.

Seated Rest

5 Min.

Seated Rest

Insert

Cannula

Assess

Emotions

(EAS)

Plasma

Sample

Drug Infusion

Over 10 Min.

30 Min.

Adaptation

20 Min. Seated Rest

Assess EAS and

Side Effects

Plasma

Sample

Insert Finger

Adjust &

Apply Pressure

5 Min.

Rest

Assess BRS:

5 Min. Seated Rest

LabVIEW collects data for 1 minute, data is saved and exported for future statistical analysis

Pain Stimulator

Bryan Eckerle1, Katharine McFadden1, Adam Platt1, Elizabeth Slyziuk2, Jennifer Wells1

Advisors: Paul King, Ph.D.1 and Stephen Bruehl, Ph.D.3

1Vanderbilt University Department of Biomedical Engineering

2Vanderbilt University Department of Mechanical Engineering

3Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Anesthesiology

PROBLEM STATEMENT

Dr. Bruehl’s main objective is to understand endogenous pain regulatory mechanisms in humans, with particular interest in the relationship between blood pressure, acute pain sensitivity, and chronic pain. He is currently studying the effects of Yohimbine, a selective α-2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, to understand the role of the adrenergic system in regulation of pain pathways. He is using a device based on the original Forgione-Barber Finger Pressure Stimulatorto stimulate C-fibers. The device has a fixed amount of weight attached to a lever with an unknown amount of pressure being applied to the dorsal surface of the second phalanx of the index finger. It is mounted on a table that does not allow for adjustments to accommodate variance in subject height or forearm length. Additionally, the system does not include an electronic output. The administrator asks the subject for a numerical pain rating on a scale from 0 to 100, anchored with “no pain” and “worst pain imaginable,” thus creating a numerical bias. Our objective is to create an adjustable, electronically integrated, and standardized acute pain stimulus to compare responses under placebo and under blockade of various receptors.

SYSTEM SCHEMATIC

EXAMPLE OF PREVIOUS DATA

Subject Number 008 NO GRAPHICAL OUTPUT

Reported Pain Level: 30, 50, 65, 90 MANUAL DATA ENTRY NECESSARY

Circuit sensitivity

= .6V/cm @ Vs=5V

Potentiometer sensitivity

= 1500Ω/cm

RESULTS

Potentiometer Circuits

DEVICE

PC

Computer

LabVIEW 7.1

USB DAQ

NI 6009

Contact Switch Circuit

APPROACHES CONSIDERED

Vibration, thermal and electrical stimuli were considered, but ultimately rejected in order to maintain pressure stimulus of C-fibers. A pneumatic pressure device was also considered, but rejected for the stable and reliable lever system already in place.

  • ADDITIONAL EQUIPMENT
  • National Instruments LabVIEW Version 7.1.1
  • National Instruments USB-6009 Data Acquisition Device
  • Mouser Electronics 60mm Linear 10k Taiwan Alpha Slide Potentiometer
  • PROJECT DELIVERABLES
  • Modified version of Forgione-Barber Finger Pressure Stimulator
  • Software for data acquisition
  • Vertically adjustable medical table
  • Sliding scales to eliminate number bias
  • Integrated system: device mounted to table, connected to sliding scale and software

CONCLUSION

Design specifications were met so that the experiment is adjustable for subject variance, automated, and electronically integrated. The study is improved as a result.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

IMPROVED EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

Screening and

Questionnaires

5 Min. Resting

BP Assessment

Assess Baroreceptor

Sensitivity (BRS)

15 Min.

Seated Rest

5 Min.

Seated Rest

Insert

Cannula

Assess

Emotions

(EAS)

Plasma

Sample

Drug or Placebo

Infusion

Over 10 Min.

30 Min.

Adaptation

  • IMPROVEMENTS
  • ELECTRONIC OUTPUT using LabVIEW 7.1
  • Automated Timer Digital Data Storage
  • Digital Display Ability to Export data for further statistical analysis
  • Graphical Output Automated Start of Data Acquisition (contact switch)
  • Audiovisual Cues
  • Adjustability
  • Hand Dominance Forearm Length
  • Subject Height Adjustable Weight Applied directly over Contact Point
  • Pain Reading
    • Linear Potentiometers eliminate numerical bias

20 Min. Seated Rest

Assess EAS and

Side Effects

Plasma

Sample

Insert Finger

Adjust &

Apply Pressure

5 Min.

Rest

Assess BRS:

5 Min. Seated Rest

15s

Manual

Data Entry

& Analysis

15s

15s

15s

Numerical

Pain Rating

Numerical

Pain Rating

Numerical

Pain Rating

Numerical

Pain Rating