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Issues to Consider When Starting a GIS Project. Andy Schmidt GIS Technician. Issues To Consider In a GIS Project. 1. Identify Your Objectives 2. Technical Considerations 3. Who Will Create the GIS? 4. Designing a GIS 5 . Data Needs, Design and Capture

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Issues to Consider When Starting a GIS Project


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issues to consider in a gis project
Issues To Consider Ina GIS Project

1. Identify Your Objectives

2. Technical Considerations

3. Who Will Create the GIS?

4. Designing a GIS

5 . Data Needs, Design and Capture

6. Analyzing the Data and Presenting the Results

7. Project Life Cycle

what is the problem to solve with a gis

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

What Is the Problemto Solve With a GIS?
  • How is it solved now?
  • How would we like it solved?
  • Are there alternate ways of solving by using a GIS?
what is the need for a gis

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

What Is the Needfor a GIS?
  • How can GIS technology be implemented effectively to streamline existing functions?
  • How can it change the way a particular goal is achieved?
what are the final products of a gis

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

What Are the FinalProducts of a GIS?
  • Presentation of quality maps and map books
  • Working maps
  • Internet maps
  • Reports and charts
  • A system that ties multiple facets into an easy to use application that allows all users to access the data they want and need from a central location
who is the intended audience

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

Who Is the Intended Audience?
  • Decision Makers/Management
  • Technicians
  • Planners
  • Engineers
  • System Operators
  • Customers
  • Public
what is the primary use of the data

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

What Is the PrimaryUse of the Data?
  • Facility Locating
  • Customer Locating
  • System Inventory
  • Analysis of Your System
will the data be used for other purposes

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

Will the Data Be Usedfor Other Purposes?
  • Modeling the System
  • Phase Tracing
  • Outage Management
  • Staking Sheet Generation
  • Driving Directions
what are the requirements of these other purposes

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

What are the Requirements of These Other Purposes?
  • Additional Software
  • Quality Updated Data
  • Good Data Management
  • Customization
what are the goals of the project

Issue 1: Identify Your Objectives

What Are the Goalsof the Project?
  • Short (0-2 years)
  • Medium (1-5 years)
  • Long (5+ years)
  • Getting essential data into the GIS
  • Fix holes in data
  • Fix incorrect data
  • Modeling
  • Adding additional data
  • Link to other software
  • Advanced analysis of the system
  • Integration of GIS to many other systems
do you plan to start small then expand

Issue 1: Identify your Objectives

Do You Plan to Start Small Then Expand?
  • Start with a circuit, substation or predefined area then expand from it
  • Convert whole systems starting with a specific device
  • What is the expansion schedule or timeline?
  • What are the most critical areas?
what computing environment are you using

Issue 2: Technical Issues

What Computing Environment Are You Using?
  • Windows NT, 2000, XP
  • Unix Workstation
  • Mixed Environment
what gis software will you be using

Issue 2: Technical Issues

What GIS Software WillYou Be Using?
  • May depend on your computing environment
  • May depend on previous experience with a vendor
key factors in choosing a vendor

Issue 2: Technical Issues

Key Factors in Choosinga Vendor
  • Stability
  • Leadership in the Industry
  • Integration of Existing Legacy Systems
  • Partnerships or Long Term Alignments
  • Development
  • Flexibility
  • Open Architecture
  • Customizable
    • Out of the box software should do 75% of what you want it to do
  • Cost and Maintenance Agreements
key factors in cost

Issue 2: Technical Issues

Key Factors in Cost
  • Hardware
  • Software
  • Upgrades
  • Software Maintenance Agreements
  • Conversion
  • Development
  • Ability to Drive Technology Change
  • Organizational Size and Position of Resources
  • Scope Change
  • Revisions
other technical issues

Issue 2: Technical Issues

Other Technical Issues
  • How many people are responsible for making changes to the data?
      • Single editor
      • Multiple editors at one location
      • Multiple editors accessing a server
  • Who will be accessing the data?
      • Single user
      • Multiple users at one location
      • Several users at different locations using the internet
who will create the gis

Issue 3: Who Will Create the GIS

Who Will Create the GIS?
  • In-House
  • Consultant
  • Combination of In-House employees and Consultants
in house

Issue 3: Who Will Create the GIS

In-House
  • Set up a GIS Steering Team
      • Leaders and managers.
      • Experts in the areas you want to incorporate.
  • Dedicate the people to do the work
  • Implications
      • Will the employees only be dedicated to the GIS?
      • Do you have to hire new people to replace those working on the GIS?
      • Will dedicating the employees to GIS hinder the jobs of other employees?
      • Do they really want to work on the GIS?
      • Are there people trained to do GIS work?
consultant

Issue 3: Who Will Create the GIS

Consultant
  • Set up a GIS Steering Team
  • Dedicate a Contact Person
  • Key member of the GIS Team
  • Knowledge of all parts of the system
  • Available throughout the process
  • Passionate about the project
consultant23

Issue 3: Who Will Create the GIS

Consultant
  • Choose the Consultant
      • Has extensive knowledge of GIS and the electric utility
      • Capable of doing what you want them to do
      • Visit with them to see what they have done
      • Ask others about the consultant - references
consultant24

Issue 3: Who Will Create the GIS

Consultant
  • Set up Timeline of Deliverables
  • Area check copies
  • Initial conversion completion
  • Updates
  • System integration and takeover
combination of in house employees and consultants

Issue 3: Who Will Create the GIS

Combination of In-House Employees and Consultants
  • Set up a GIS Steering Team
  • Determine Who Does What
  • Only Work on What Has Been Agreed Upon
  • Agree on Timelines and Deliverables and Remember the Goals
  • Work Together Not Against Each Other
  • Correspond Frequently
objectives of design

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Objectives of Design
  • Results in a Well-Constructed Operational Database That:
      • Satisfies objectives and supports organizational requirements
      • Contains all necessary data but no redundant data
      • Organizes data so that different users can access the same data
      • Accommodates different views of the data
      • Distinguishes which applications maintain the data from which applications access the data
      • Appropriately represents, codes and organizes graphical features
benefits from good design

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Benefits From Good Design
  • Although Time Consuming…
    • Increased flexibility of data retrieval and analysis
    • Increased likelihood of users developing applications
    • Decrease time in attributing data
    • Data that supports different users and uses
    • A system that readily accommodates future functionality
    • Minimized data redundancy
design guidelines

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Design Guidelines
  • Involve users
  • Educate users in what a GIS can do
  • Take it one step at a time
  • Build a team
  • Be creative
  • Create deliverables
  • Keep goals and objectives in focus
  • Do not add detail prematurely
  • Document carefully
  • Be flexible
  • Plan from your model
data modeling

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Data Modeling
  • Model the Users View of Data
      • Identify organizational functions
      • Determine data needed to support functions
      • Organize data into local groups
  • Define Objects and Relationships
      • Identify and describe objects
      • Specify relationships between objects
      • Document model in diagram
data modeling32

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Data Modeling
  • Select Geographic Representation
      • Represent data with discreet features
        • Points, Lines and Polygons
  • Characterize continuous phenomena with rasters
data modeling33

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Data Modeling
  • Match Data to Spatial Elements
      • Determine geometry type of discrete features
      • Specify relationships between features
      • Implement attribute types for objects
data modeling34

Issue 4: Designing a GIS

Data Modeling
  • Organize Database Structure
      • Organize system of features
      • Define topological associations
      • Assign coordinate systems
      • Define relationships, rules and domains
data design

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Design
  • Identify the Spatial Data Needed
      • Land-base
      • Facility
  • Determine the Required Feature Layers
      • Roads, Municipals, Water features, Parcels
      • Conductor, Transformer, Consumer, Poles
data design37

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Design
  • How Current Must the Data Be?
    • For planning, the most current data may be required
    • For general mapping, data may be a few years old
  • What Data Do I Have?
    • Digital
    • Paper records
    • Is it in a usable format?
    • Can it be converted?
data acquiring

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Acquiring
  • Where can I Get Missing Data From?
      • Government entities (DOT, DNR, LMIC, County, and Municipal)
      • Other utilities
      • Other consultants
      • GPS
      • Aerial photos
      • DRG's (digital raster graphics)
data acquiring39

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Acquiring
  • How Much Are We Willing to Pay for Data?
      • Most entities charge for data
      • Most entities request data sharing agreements
  • When Do You Need the Data?
      • “Off-the-shelf" data sets can be acquired in one to two business days
      • Custom sets may take weeks to prepare
data acquiring40

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Acquiring
  • Will You Need Periodic Data Updates and How Frequently?
      • Complete replacements
      • Transactional updates (changes only)
      • It is best to negotiate a maintenance schedule with the initial data license
data specifics

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Specifics
  • Determine the Level of Detail Needed
      • More detail or a large scale like 1:24,000
      • Less detail or small scale like 1:1,000,000
  • Select the Map Area Boundary
      • Company service area
      • County/Township/Municipal region
      • Buffered region incase of expansion
  • Determine The Level of Geography You WantTo Examine
      • Service area
      • Township
      • Section
      • Quarter section
      • Miscellaneous detail areas
choose the coordinate system and units

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Choose the CoordinateSystem and Units
  • Coordinate Systems
    • UTM
    • State plain
    • County coordinates
    • Custom
  • Units
    • Meters
    • Feet
    • Decimal degrees
choosing the attributes

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture Continued

Choosing the Attributes
  • Choose the Attributes Each Feature Needs.
      • Identifiers of Cooperative or Company
      • Identifiers of substation
      • Identifiers of circuit
      • Identifiers of device (Must have a UNIQUE ID such as Device # or Account #)
  • Very Important. Make sure there is a non-duplicate unique ID for every device in order to tie to other software or data
data representation45

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Representation
  • Grid System

Joe Smith is located at: T 101 R 32

Section 01

Grid 8

Sub grid 6

ID = 10132010806

data representation46

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Representation
  • Real World Coordinates
      • XY or Latitude Longitude
          • Each feature has it own real-world coordinate
data representation47

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Data Representation
  • Choose the Way You Want to Represent The Data
      • Color
      • Symbology g h j k w r
      • Annotation or Labels NameName Name NAME
      • Offsets of Features
automation of data

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Automation of Data
  • Converting existing data from other systems and formats into the same format
  • Digitizing data from paper
  • Adding GPS data
  • Data entry of attributes
  • Creating topology and connectivity
automation of data49

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Automation of Data
  • Putting additional spatial data into real world coordinates
  • Join adjacent data sets
  • Updating data sets
  • Verifying data with GPS
  • Perform QA/QC
      • Correct locations
      • Correct attributes
      • Connectivity
conversion issues

Issue 5: Data Design Needs and Capture

Conversion Issues
  • Keep project goals in mind
  • Do not add additional requirements until initial requirements are met
  • What you put in is what you get out of a GIS
  • Stick with one software or vendor until conversion is completed
analyzing data

Issue 6: Analyzing the Data and Present the Results

Analyzing Data
  • Referred to as Spatial Modeling
  • A Model is a Representation of Reality To:
      • Simulate a process
      • Predict an outcome
      • Analyze a problem
  • Models in a GIS
      • Connectivity
      • Tracing up stream and down
      • Proximity calculations
      • Common ancestor finding
presenting results

Issue 6: Analyzing the Data and Present the Results

Presenting Results
  • Project should effectively communicate your findings to your audience
  • Create paper map books
  • Create digital map books
  • Internet mapping
  • Wall maps
  • Create charts and reports
  • Give demonstrations
training users

Issue 6: Analyzing the Data and Present the Results

Training Users
  • In-House
  • Software Vendors
  • Consultants
  • Conferences
  • Internet Classes
  • Local Colleges and Vocational Schools
problems that might cause a gis to fail

Issue 7: Project Life Cycle Issues

Problems That MightCause a GIS to Fail
  • GIS perceived as only a automated mapping tool to replace manual mapping
  • People do not want to change
  • Inadequate quality control
  • Cannot access system or data
  • Poor project implementation
  • Unrealistic expectations
  • Poor training
  • Failure to plan on how to maintain the GIS data and operations
  • Project cost overrun
      • Scope change, adding premature detail
conclusions
Conclusions
  • When Starting a GIS
      • Identify your objectives for the project
      • Examine software, hardware and vendors
      • Determine who will create the GIS
      • Determine the design
      • Determine data needs & how to acquire
      • Train users
      • Stay focused on the goals
slide58

These steps and Planning as a Team to meet the Goals will help insure a GIS that will be Useful to all users as well as Cost Effective to the company.