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  1. E-Voting,a technical perspective Dhaval Patel • 04IT6006 • School of Information Technology, IIT KGP patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  2. E - Voting • Definition • Requirement Table of contents Voting Technology DRE, I-Voting , Lever Machine Advantages and Disadvantages Voting Interface Approaches • Voter Verifiability Ballots • FEC Guideline • IEEE Standard • Conclusion patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  3. E – Voting Means “A term used to describe any of several means of determining people's collective intent electronically”. Any of several means Internet Voting By Kiosk Telephone Punch Card Optical Scan Ballot (Mark-Sense) patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  4. polling station kiosk systems unattended remotevoting (e.g Internet) Scenarios • Various kinds of e-Voting Unattended remote voting promises a convenient way of voting from abroad, we however face a number of security challenges patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  5. Requirements in E-Voting • Eligibility • Authentication • Uniqueness • Anonymity • Accuracy • Verifiability • Audit Ability • Secrecy • Minimum skill required for voter • Minimal requirement of equipment • Minimum Time required for vote • Recount Facility patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  6. Voting Technology • Plain Paper Ballot • Lever Machine • Postal • Punch Card • Optical Scanning • Telephone Phone • Electronic Machine Voting(Direct Recording Electronic) • Remote Electronic Voting (Online Voting) 1857 1892 1960s 1970s 1978 2000 patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  7. Plain Paper Ballot Invented By Australian paper ballot system - A Great Innovation Current Usage Problem Counting & Re-Counting Problem (Hand Counting) Problem with Disabled People Solution Let Machine To Count the Vote Australian ballot (U.S., 1888) SOURCE: DOUGLAS W. JONES patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  8. Mechanical Lever Machine First Official Use At Lockport, New York in 1892 Known As “Myers Automatic Booth” Current Usage + Points Privacy Automatic Counting - Points No Physical Record Exist that represent voter’s intent No Recount Facility patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  9. Punch Card • Types of Punch Card • Votomatic • Contains a hole beside the number of the choice • Datavote Contains a hole beside the name of the candidate of their choice + Points Automatic Counting Recount Facility - Points Recount rarely produce same count The problems with punch-card ballots became well known after the state of Florida’s 2000 US Presidential Election. patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  10. Optical Scanning patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  11. Optical Scanning Mechanized Counting From Punch Card Clarity + Transparency From Paper Ballot System Optical Scanning First Invented By In 1937, By IBM Type 805 Test Scoring Machine, sensing graphite pencil marks on paper by their electrical conductivity Scanning Method : Visible Light , Infrared + Points Quicker Counting - Points Error rates from using the wrong type of pencil Under Vote & Over Vote , Dark/light marks patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  12. Electronic Machine Voting (Direct Recording Electronic) - 1 “It is an Electronic Equivalent of a Mechanical-Lever Machine” Use of a touch-screen, push buttons, or similar device An alphabetic keyboard is often provided with the entry device to allow for the possibility of write-in votes The voter’s choices are stored in these machines via a memory cartridge, diskette or smart card Feature Provided By DRE Accessibility & Prevention of Voter Mistake Provide Audio interface for visually impaired Preventing Over-Vote and Warning Under-Vote Avoid cost related with securing and producing paper ballots patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  13. Electronic Machine Voting (Direct Recording Electronic) - 2 SOURCE: SHOUP VOTING SOLUTIONS patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  14. Electronic Machine Voting (Direct Recording Electronic ) - 3 SOURCE: SHOUP VOTING SOLUTIONS patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  15. Electronic Machine Voting (Direct Recording Electronic ) - 4 Source : http://www.eci.gov.in/EVM/ patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  16. Internet Voting (I-Voting) • Registration • Voting • Counting "Those whocast the votes decide nothing.Those whocount the votes decide everything."Josef Stalin patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  17. U.S. Voting Methods 2000-2004 2004 • Optical scan (34%) • DRE (31%) • Lever (14%) • Punched-card (14%) • Paper (1%) • Indeterminate: (6%) ? CARD DRE OPTICAL LEVER 2000 • Punched-card (32%) • Optical scan (28%) • Lever (16%) • DRE (12%) • Paper (1%) • Indeterminate: (11%) PAPER ? PUNCHED CARD DRE LEVER OPTICAL patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  18. Source: Election Data Services patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  19. Voting Interfaces • Election Integrity -> Recorded Vote Accurately reflect voter’s intent • Case 1: “Butterfly Ballot Design” • Voter mistakenly record their intent. • Need : Design User friendly interface with the Voting Machine as well as satisfying the above requirement  Complex Interface • Problem with Complex Interface • Ballot Review of ballot design is difficult • Required Extra Step • Assistance for Elder People • Difficulty with the interface was correlated with age and education. patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  20. Survey A University of Maryland study conducted an exit poll on voters using Diebold’s AccuVote-TS touch-screen DRE machines in two counties in Maryland. 3% of voters encountered technical problems, 7% of voter reported that they were not easy to use 9% of voter asked for assistance using the machines Difficulty with the interface was correlated with age and education. 21% of the voters 65 years or older asked for help 5% of the voters between 35 to 49 years asked for help 16% of the voters between 18 to 24 years asked for help (might be largely due to inexperience with voting in general) The amount of assistance required does play a role in voter trust in a voting system because that help will usually come from a poll-site worker. Voters who ask for he risk compromising their anonymity, and voters who need assistance might be reluctant to ask for it because of this or just personal embarrassment. patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  21. Vote Recording How voter can verifythe vote? It is recorded Properly or not……….. Solution : Mercuri Method – Voter Verifiability Ballots patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  22. FEC Guideline • Provided FEC Standard • More Focus on Mechanical Reliability • Coding Standard • Design Standard • Perform Logical and Accuracy Testing At Pooling Booth • Complicated Design • Ballot complexity (Display 135 candidate for election) • Support of multiple language • Ballot rotation (Limitation of the Touch Screen) • Write-in votes • Vote for many • Changing the font size on screen patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  23. IEEE Voting Equipment Standard (1583) • Provide technical specifications for electronic, mechanical, and human factors that can be used by manufacturers of voting machinesor by those purchasing such machines. • - Approved on June 14, 2001 • Develop an evaluation standard for election voting equipment that test the • · Accessibility· Accuracy· Confidentiality· Reliability· Security· Usability patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  24. Help America Vote Act (HAVA) • A Federal Law passed in 2002 to reform voting technologies and procedures, has raised the bar. It requires that by January 2006, all voting systems must: • allow disabled voters to vote independently and privately • allow voters to change or correct their votes before casting a ballot • notify the voter of an "over vote" where too many candidates are selected • produce a paper record that can be audited and recounted • provide alternate languages for voters with limited English proficiency patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  25. @ Conclusions Voters’ trust comes from combination of the mechanisms and procedures we used to record and tally votes Use of the E-Voting also based on the perception of the people…. Result of the Election also based on the ballot design Voter Verifiability is used to increase the trust of voter. Method like voting by kiosk, Internet, telephone, punch card, and optical scan ballot. patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  26. Q A & patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in

  27. Thank you for your attention School of Information Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in patelc@sit.iitkgp.ernet.in