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Variable Effort Allocations in Workload Models. Alan R. White Dean, Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences Professor , Department of Biology East Carolina University. Using Quantitative Productivity Tools to Guide Academic Decision-Making:

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Variable Effort Allocations in Workload Models


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variable effort allocations in workload models

Variable Effort Allocations in Workload Models

Alan R. White

Dean, Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences

Professor, Department of Biology

East Carolina University

Using Quantitative Productivity Tools

to Guide Academic Decision-Making:

A workshop for deans, associate/assistant deans and budget managers

CCAS / University of Cincinnati 25 & 26 March 2011

there s nothing new
There’s nothing new . . .

Ernest L. Boyer, 1990, Scholarship Reconsidered: Priorities for the professoriate.

Howard Mancing, 1994, A theory of faculty workload. ADFL Bulletin. 25 (3): 31-37.

Gary S. Krahenbuhl, 1997, The Integration of Faculty Responsibilities and Institutional Needs. Arizona State University. http://is.asu.edu/workload/resources/faculty.html

there s nothing new3
There’s nothing new . . .

As legislatures and governing boards look for ways to provide access to higher education at a reasonable cost, attention frequently turns to the teaching loads of university faculty. The popular view is that faculty members are underutilized in teaching and preoccupied with their research. A redirection of faculty effort, away from research and toward teaching, is a common prescription for providing more classes without increasing costs.

Gary S. Krahenbuhl, Arizona State Univ., 1997

workload management at the college level
Workload Management at the College Level
  • Workloads are implemented by department chairs in an interaction with individual faculty members.
  • Deans must manage the workload expectations of various departments and disciplines across the whole college.
defining workload
Defining “Workload”
  • Not just teaching load; Student Credit Hours
  • Workload = Teaching + Research + Service
  • Course Load Allocations (Fall/Spring)

4/4 3/3 3/2 2/2 1/1 0/1

  • Percent Effort Allocations (T / R / S)

40% / 40% / 20% 20% / 60% / 20%

slide6

Defining “Workload”

What do we mean by:

  • Variable Workload
  • Differentiated Workload
  • Variable Effort Allocation
  • Flexible Workload Allocation
misconceptions
Misconceptions

Governing Bodies and the General Public

(Board of Trustees, legislators, your neighbors)

  • Think we in higher education work only 12 hours per week

(4/4 = 4 courses X 3 hrs = 12 hrs/week)

(2/2 = 2 courses X 3 hrs = 6 hrs/week)

misconceptions8
Misconceptions

Governing Bodies and the General Public

(Board of Trustees, legislators, your neighbors)

  • Don’t understand what we do.
  • Don’t understand the research/scholarship component of the university mission.
  • Don’t understand how we spend our time
slide9

Governing Bodies and the General Public

The integration of various activities is not unique to university faculty members; it is common in the professions. The typical surgeon spends a small portion of the day in surgery, but the time spent in such activities as patient care, continuing medical education and service to a hospital board or the AMA is important to his/her professional development and practice. Attorneys spend important time in court, but their success in litigation is strongly influenced by their other professional activities.

Simply put, a surgeon’s work extends beyond the operating room, the lawyer’s beyond the courtroom, and the professor’s beyond the classroom. It is the integration of a rich set of activities that leads to full effectiveness in each profession, and full benefits for the patient, client, or student.

Gary S. Krahenbuhl, Arizona State Univ., 1997

slide10

Governing Bodies and the General Public

Public View

  • T/R/S are distinct, compartmentalized activities that compete for time – zero sum – more of one means less of another.
  • Focus on transmission of knowledge.

Academic View

  • T/R/S are overlapping and integrated efforts that lead to generation, transmission and application of knowledge.
faculty considerations
Faculty Considerations

Faculty Reaction

  • Most faculty members also don’t understand what their colleagues in different disciplines do.
  • Humanities, fine and performing arts, social sciences, natural sciences, mathematics, education, business, health sciences.
  • Concern that workloads are imposed on faculty rather than negotiated.
  • You’re using a spreadsheet to determine my annual performance evaluation.
course definitions
Course Definitions

What is a course? Does 2/2 = 2/2?

  • Laboratory courses
  • Large auditorium lecture sections
  • Seminar courses
  • Undergraduate vs Masters vs PhD
  • Research supervision
  • Thesis and dissertation supervision
tenure and promotion considerations
Tenure and Promotion Considerations

Tenure and Promotion Expectations

  • T & P criteria are paramount
  • Workload assignments should not interfere or conflict with T & P expectations
  • Variation from standard workload expectations should be used with caution (if at all) with pre-tenure faculty.
goals of workload management models
Goals of Workload Management Models

At all levels (university, college, department, program, faculty):

  • Meet the mission expectations
  • Assure that teaching and scholarship expectations are met
  • Assure understanding of all parties
  • Provide framework for evaluation
features of flexible and differentiated workload models
Features of Flexible and Differentiated Workload Models
  • Allow faculty members to deviate from standard workloads
  • Provide flexibility for faculty and disciplines
  • Not mandatory - provide for negotiated agreement, rather than imposed workload assignments
features of flexible and differentiated workload models17
Features of Flexible and Differentiated Workload Models
  • Recognize aptitudes and preferences of individual faculty members
  • Recognize stages of careers; Career trajectory
  • Recognize discipline differences
university of north carolina system a complex model
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model
  • 15 University Campuses
  • Undergraduate, Comprehensive Masters, Historically Black Institutions,Research II, Research I (flagships)
  • SCH Enrollment Change Funding Model
university of north carolina system a complex model20
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model

Base workload is 12 hours/semester

  • Undergraduate

12 hrs @ 3 hrs per course = 4 courses or 4/4

  • Graduate

9 hrs @ 3 hrs per course = 3 courses or 3/3

university of north carolina system a complex model21
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model

What is a course?

  • Standard 3 hour course
  • Section Size: Undergraduate enrollment can be 20 to over 500
  • Introductory or General Education
  • Upper division undergraduate
  • Undergraduate vs Masters vs PhD
university of north carolina system a complex model22
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model

What is a course?

  • Laboratory courses
  • Seminar courses; Special Topics
  • Internships; Practicum; Student Teaching
  • Research supervision
  • Thesis and dissertation supervision
university of north carolina system a complex model23
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model

Discipline Considerations

  • General Education – large sections
  • Standard 3 hr didactic courses
  • Natural Sciences with labs
  • Music, theater, dance, fine arts – practice
  • Math, English and Foreign Languages – small sections
university of north carolina system a complex model24
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model

Discipline Considerations

  • Professional Programs

Nursing Health Sciences

Education Business

Engineering Social Work

university of north carolina system a complex model25
University of North Carolina System: A Complex Model

SCH Production

  • A general measure of scope of instruction
  • Quantitative, NOT qualitative
  • Can set up competition; zero sum game
university of north carolina system enrollment change funding model
University of North Carolina System: Enrollment Change Funding Model
  • Designed for system-level allocation of resources to whole institutions
  • Based on a growth model
  • Accounts for some variability from Disciplines and Level of Instruction
  • Attempts to be equitable across a complex state-wide system
workload policies or sops
Workload Policies or SOPs

General Considerations

  • Workload = Teaching / Research / Service
  • Flexibility for different department and faculty situations
  • Recognizes change over time
  • Negotiated agreement, rather than an imposed workload on a faculty member
workload policies or sops31
Workload Policies or SOPs

General Considerations

  • Focus is on the department collective load
  • Department chair has responsibility to balance individual expectations with collective expectations for the department. Teaching/Research/Service – all three.
  • Chair must balance SCH production, course offerings, general education with faculty scholarship and research
workload policies or sops32
Workload Policies or SOPs

Special Considerations

  • Tenure and promotion expectations remain
  • Used mostly for post-tenure faculty
  • Annual evaluations must align with negotiated workload expectations.
  • Rewards (salary increases) should also align with workload and evaluation.
workload policies or sops33
Workload Policies or SOPs

Department Strategies

  • Keep SCH production up. Like it or not, dropping SCH production will be noticed.
  • Modify frequency and pattern of course offerings for efficiency.

Offer less often Cross-listing

Switch to every other semester or year

  • Increase class size, while maintaining instructional quality
workload policies or sops34
Workload Policies or SOPs

Other Department Considerations

Buy Outs from External Sources

  • External funding pays to hire an instructor
  • Grants, contracts
  • Federal, state, private foundations
  • Corporate grants
  • Other universities
workload policies or sops35
Workload Policies or SOPs

Other Department Considerations

Buy Outs from Internal Sources

  • Funding from other institutional units
  • Administrative duties
  • Interim appointments
  • Research centers or institutes
  • Special funded projects
ecu workload analysis spreadsheet39
ECU Workload Analysis Spreadsheet

Department Workload Analysis

ecu workload analysis spreadsheet40
ECU Workload Analysis Spreadsheet

Department Workload Analysis

features from other models univ colo denver arizona state univ iowa state univ
Features from Other ModelsUnivColo –Denver; Arizona State Univ; Iowa State Univ
  • Assume 40/40/20 for all faculty
  • Can adjust any category up or down
  • No less than 10% in any category
  • Must apply for adjustment
  • Agreement by faculty, chair, dean
  • Changes active for one semester, one year
  • Reverts back to default 40/40/20 at end of agreement
questions and discussion
Questions and Discussion

Alan R. White

Dean, Thomas Harriot College of Arts and Sciences

Professor, Department of Biology

East Carolina University

whiteal@ecu.edu