Hazard Evaluation and Risk Assessment Session 2 Laboratory Safety Training
What is Risk? • The potential for realization of unwanted, adverse consequences to human life, health, property, or the environment; estimation of risk is usually based on the expected value of the conditional probability of the event occurring times the consequence of the event given that it has occurred.
Risk analysis • A detailed examination including risk assessment, risk evaluation, and risk management alternatives, performed to understand the nature of unwanted, negative consequences to human life, health, property, or the environment; an analytical process to provide information regarding undesirable events; the process of quantification of the probabilities and expected consequences for identified risks.
Risk assessment • The process of establishing information regarding acceptable levels of a risk and/or levels of risk for an individual, group, society, or the environment.
Risk estimation • The scientific determination of the characteristics of risks, usually in as quantitative a way as possible. These include the magnitude, spatial scale, duration and intensity of adverse consequences and their associated probabilities as well as a description of the cause and effect links
Risk evaluation • A component of risk assessment in which judgments are made about the significance and acceptability of risk
Risk identification • Recognizing that a hazard exists and trying to define its characteristics. Often risks exist and are even measured for some time before their adverse consequences are recognized. In other cases, risk identification is a deliberate procedure to review, and it is hoped, anticipate possible hazards.
Safety • Relative protection from adverse consequences.
Hazard • A condition or physical situation with a potential for an undesirable consequence, such as harm to life or limb.
Hazard assessment • An analysis and evaluation of the physical, chemical and biological properties of the hazard.
New of culture of Chemical Safety • Public opinion of chemicals has changed over the last 25 years. • Love Canal 1977. • Designation of Superfund Sites. • Community Right to Know laws. • Cradle–to–grave management of wastes
Culture of chemical safety cont. • On Dec. 3, 1984, a Union Carbide industrial plant in Bhopal, India, released a deadly cloud of the gas methyl isocyanate into the air, killing at least 6,500 people. • OSHA’s Process Safety Management
Annual Risk of Death in the US • Hazard Number of deaths/million persons • All Causes 9,000.0 • Motor Vehicle Accidents 210.0 • Work Accidents 150.0 • Homicides 93.0 • Drowning 37.0 • Poisonings 17.0 • Boating 0.6 • Tornadoes 0.4 • Bites and Stings 0.2
Annual Risk of Death in the US • HazardNumber of deaths/million persons • Motor Vehicle Accidents 210.0 • Work Accidents 150.0 • Homicides 93.0 • Drowning37.0 • Poisonings 17.0 • Boating 0.6 • Tornadoes 0.4 • Bites and Stings 0.2
RISK COMPARISONS FOR INVOLUNTARY RISKS • RiskRisk of Death / Person / Year • Influenza 1 in 5000 • Leukemia 1 in 12,500 • Struck by Automobile 1 in 20,000 • Floods 1 in 455,000 • Tornadoes (Midwest) 1 in 455,000 • Earthquakes (California) 1 in 588,000 • Nuclear Power Plant 1 in 10 million • Meteorite 1 in 100 billion
CONCEPT OF DE MINIMIS RISK • De minimis risks are those risks judged to be too small to be of social concern, or too small to justify the use of risk management resources for control. • The De minimis risk level frequently used by government agencies (EPA, FDA) is 1 in 1,000,000 or “1 in a million” increased risk of an adverse effect occurring over a 70 year lifetime in a large population.
CONCEPT OF DE MINIMIS RISK The 1 in a million risk level used to regulate some chemicals and other hazards is many times below risks which people face every day.
Reality check “There is no point in getting into a panic about the risks of life until you have compared the risks which worry you with those that don’t, but perhaps should.” (Lord Rothschild, The Wall Street Journal, 1979).
RISKS THAT INCREASE PROBABILITY OF DEATH BY ONE IN A MILLION • ActivityCause of Death • Smoking 1.4 Cigarettes Cancer, Heart Disease • Traveling 10 miles by Bicycle Accident • Traveling 300 miles by Car Accident • Flying 1000 miles by Jet Accident • One Chest X-Ray Cancer from Radiation • Living 150 years within Cancer from Radiation 20 miles of a Nuclear Power Plant • Risk of Accident by Living Cancer from Radiation within 5 Miles of a Nuclear • Reactor for 50 yrs
Principal Elements of Risk Assessment • Anticipation • Recognition • Evaluation
Risk Assessment vs. Risk Management • Anticipation, Recognition and Evaluation are Risk Assessment • Control is Risk Management
Risk is an Equal Functionof Toxicity and Exposure • Paracelsus Understood Risk Assessment • Risk = Toxicity X Dose • Exposure = Dose • Risk = Toxicity X Dose
Ensuring Safe Laboratories • These thought processes must occur prior to conducting all laboratory research.