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RFID Experts Group (REG). eWaste: Environmental & Recycling Issues 27 October 2005. Today’s REG Panel. Rich Vossel, Savi Technology Angela Leith, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Clarke McAllister, ADASA . RFID Experts Group.

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rfid experts group reg

RFID Experts Group (REG)

eWaste: Environmental & Recycling Issues

27 October 2005

today s reg panel
Today’s REG Panel
  • Rich Vossel, Savi Technology
  • Angela Leith, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
  • Clarke McAllister, ADASA
rfid experts group
RFID Experts Group
  • Craig K. Harmon, Chair
  • Bert Moore, Secretary
  • Responsible for RFID Implementation Guidance
rfid experts group5
RFID Experts Group
  • Formed in February 2004 to assist DoD with RFID implementation
    • Current Proposed Guidelines for the Use of RFID - Enabled Labels in Military Logistics: Recommendations for Revision of MIL-STD 129
  • Under the AIM Global umbrella in July 2004
  • International collaboration (1st Intl Mtg - 9/15-16)
    • Europe
    • Japan
    • Korea
    • China
reg working groups wgs
REG Working Groups (WGs)
  • WG 5-I: Interrogator System Implementation & Operations
  • WG 5-B: Back-up
  • WG 5-L: Enabled Labels & Packaging
  • WG 5-R: Recyclability
  • WG 5-Q: Tag Quality
  • WG 5-E: Education & Certification
  • WG 5-G: Global Operation (Regulatory)
  • WG 5-P: Privacy
  • WG 5-F: Safety (Public Policy)
  • WG 5-C: Security
  • WG 5-T: Sensors and Transducers
  • WG 5-S: Technology Selection
  • WG 5-M: Software & Middleware
iso iec implementation trs
ISO/IEC Implementation TRs
  • ISO/IEC 24729-1, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 1: RFID-enabled labels and packaging
  • ISO/IEC 24729-2,Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 2: Recyclability of RF tags
  • ISO/IEC 24729-3, Information technology — Radio frequency identification for item management — Implementation guidelines – Part 3: RFID interrogator/antenna installation
rf tags recycling
RF tags & recycling
  • How RF tags can assist in recycling efforts
  • The effect of RF tags in the waste stream


Restrictions on Hazardous Substances (RoHS ) &

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE)

  • EU’s Directive 2002/95/EC
  • RoHS legislation calls for the removal of lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers
  • The National Safety Council estimates that 254 million home computers became obsolete in the U.S. between 1997 and 2003. Another 250 million are expected to become obsolete between 2004 and 2007.
  • The Gartner Group, expects Americans to replace or junk 133,000 PCs per day this year alone.
The electronics industry must fully comply with the RoHS directive by July 1, 2006
  • Companies that aren’t in compliance with the RoHS directive by the deadline will not be able to sell their products into EU countries.
  • China’s Regulation for Pollution Control of Electronic Products (RPCEP)
  • Ministry of Information Industry (MII) has been working on lead-free legislation, and its Article 11 requires manufacturers to restrict the use of the same substances targeted by Europe in certain consumer electronic products.
  • Six Chinese ministries have contributed to writing the Management Regulation on the Recycling and Treatment of Disposed Appliances and Electronics Products regulation, including the State Environment Protection Administration (SEPA). Significantly, the Chinese directive will cover all electrical and electronic products produced in, or imported to, China. Noncompliance could mean heavy fines and/or losing the right to do business in China.
  • Electrical Appliance and Material Safety Law governs the use and control of hazardous substances in products sold in the marketplace. Japan believes its environmental laws already comply with global directives, including the RoHS and WEEE, and isn’t expected to introduce any additional legislation. (In fact, Japanese manufacturers, particularly in the consumer electronics sector, started to place lead-free restrictions on its suppliers a few years ago.)
  • Japan already has several environmental laws in place, including the Promotion of Utilization of Recycled Resources, which regulates computers and other electronic products and rechargeable battery recycling. Most Japanese companies expect to be RoHS-compliant by March 1, 2006, four months before the EU-imposed deadline.
south korea taiwan
South Korea & Taiwan
  • South Korea and Taiwan are also working on RoHS-type legislation, and Mexico has proposed legislation with provisions similar to the RoHS
rich vossel
Rich Vossel
  • AIM REG Recycling ToR
  • Strategic Systems – Savi Technology
rfid recycling17

RFID & Recycling

How Big a Deal is RFID?

Supply Chain Mandates

Walmart, DoD, Albertsons, Best Buy, Metro, Tesco

Walmart - $125 Billion in US.

Average Case sells for $50

2.5 Billion Tagged Case

Albertson,Target, etc. – Guess 10 Billion Tagged Case

Next - Guess 10X Items per Case  100 Billion Tags

rfid recycling18

RFID & Recycling

How Big a Deal is RFID?


ePedigree – Rx Units of Sale

3 Billion Prescriptions per year

Next - Medical Devices, Unit Dose, Instruments, Staff

rfid recycling19

RFID & Recycling

Where will all these tags end up?

In someone's trash . . . because most are attached to PACKAGING

Supply Chain Mandates

Pallets and Cases


Bottles, syringe vials, blister packs, tubes

rfid recycling20

RFID & Recycling

Passive Tag Components (.25-1gm/tag)

FacePolypropylene 26%

Paper 41%

AdhesiveAcrylate 12%

ICSilicon 0.1%

ACPEpoxy 0.3%

ACPMetalNickel Trace

AdhesivePolyurethane 4%

AntennaCopper 36%

Aluminum 6%

Silver 4%

Epoxy Carrier 2%

SubstratePET(Polyethylene Terephthalate) 40%

AdhesiveAcrylate 16%

rfid recycling21

RFID & Recycling

What are the affected Waste Streams?

Corrugate, Carton Board





rfid recycling22

RFID & Recycling

What are the Issues with RFID tags and Recycling?

Tainting Existing Waste Streams

Recycle Materials are Raw Materials

Purity and Quality = Price

Regulations focusing on eWastes

Enough electronics to be eWaste?

Recycle Industry Game Changer

Ownership Mark

Automated Separation

rfid recycling23

RFID & Recycling

What are the issues?

Corrugate, Carton Board

Clogging Filters, Residual Silver in Cellulose


Degrading all recycle plastic to park benches


Silicon stones start cracks, Cu fouls furnaces


Cu/Al degrade the quality of scrap metal


Little concern, especially with Al antenna

rfid recycling24

RFID & Recycling

What does the RFID Industry want relative to Recycling?

Create no negative impact on present recycling

Provide recycling improvement if possible

How are some in the RFID Industry achieving this?

Use waste stream subject matter experts – trade association

Work a waste stream before tags are prolific

Keep the regulators informed

rfid recycling25

RFID & Recycling

Process Being Practiced by AIM

Theoretical Assessment of affect on present recycling processes

Pilot testing that present/proposed processes are sufficient.

Draft guidelines for tagging and waste recycle entities. Submit to a knowledgeable 3rd party to validate

Submit the 3rd Party reviewed guidelines to the EPA for approval

Issuance of guidelines to the RFID tagging community

Have some entity certify that particular RFID tags meet the guidelines

Ask the Fiber Box Association for their study as the best example

rfid recycling26

RFID & Recycling

Are RFID Components eWaste?

Readers and Printers Are eWaste

Local Disposal Regulations


Passive Tags Generally Are Not eWaste

Local Disposal Regulations

direct landfill

thermal recycling with energy and constituent recovery, landfill ash

mechanical/chemical separation for constituent reuse


rfid recycling27

RFID & Recycling

Can RFID Tagging Improve Recycling?

Mixed Consumer Waste Separation

Waste Stream Identifier

Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive in the European Union (WEEE)

Restriction of Hazardous Substances (addendum to WEEE) (RoHS)

End of Life Vehicle (ELV) in the European Union

Home Electronics Recycling Law (HERL) in Japan

Extended Producer Responsibility Program(EPRP) in Korea

angela leith
Angela Leith
  • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
clarke mcallister
Clarke McAllister
  • RFID Tags in OCC*
  • The Future of OCC Recycling
  • Future Value of Tagged OCC
  • Action Items

*OCC = Old Corrugated Cartons

old corrugated cartons occ
Old Corrugated Cartons (OCC)
  • Internationally traded commodity.
  • Worth $40 to $60 per bale for the fiber.
  • Worth an additional amount for the RFID tags.

OCC bales contain up to ~1000 tags.

the future of occ recycling
The Future of OCC Recycling
  • Problem: Billions of valuable RFID tags will be wasted:
    • Filter Screens
    • Sludge (Solid Waste)
    • Effluent (Liquids)
    • Cumulatively into paper products
  • Solution: A fifth vector – Recycled RFID Tags
ten year occ futures model
Ten-Year OCC Futures Model

Conclusion: The total value mined from OCC bales will increase for ADASA-licensed paper mills.

realizing the benefits of tag reuse
Realizing the Benefits of Tag Reuse
  • You don’t have to waste billions of RFID tags
  • Consider buying recycled RFID tags
  • Provide tag passwords to authorized tag recyclers