Industry’s Response to the CFC Issue Archie McCulloch formerly of ICI plc, the Fluorocarbon Program Panel of the Chemical Manufacturers Association and the Alternative Fluorocarbons Environmental Acceptability Study
PAFT Program for Alternative Fluorocarbons Toxicity testing Accelerate phase out of CFCs Base decisions on health and environmental safety on best information
Combine resources • Co-operate with academic and government research programmes • Substantially reduced the usual period of time for environmental • and toxicological testing of new chemicals • Assisted the rapid phase out of CFCs • Cost: $ 11 million (AFEAS), plus $ 24 million (PAFT) • > 50 research projects • 15 workshops / symposia / conferences • >100 peer reviewed papers • 40 reports
Milestones 1989 Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone (“the silver book”) A comprehensive review of the environmental properties of HCFCs and HFCs reviewed in the WMO process and published within two years of the Montreal Protocol being signed, before any reduction in CFC use was required.
Milestones 1989 Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone (“the silver book”) Total Equivalent Warming Impact (energy conservation is more important than GWP) Over 15% of the electricity generated in the USA is used in refrigeration or air conditioning. Whatever the primary energy source, energy conservation is highly important. Containment of the refrigerant fluid has improved significantly.
Milestones • 1989 Scientific Assessment of Stratospheric Ozone • (“the silver book”) • Total Equivalent Warming Impact • (energy conservation is more important than GWP) • Trifluoroacetic Acid (TFA) Risk Assessment • Environmental TFA is not a problem. • The assessment predated the information that showed TFA • is predominantly natural.
______________________________________________ Marbury Technical Consulting TFA: Natural Global Cycle
Milestones: HFCs in the context of global warming Carbon Dioxide Methane SF6 ODS are Ozone Depleting Substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol Nitrous oxide PFCs ODS HFCs