Chapter 5 . Groups, Networks, and Organizations. Chapter Outline. Human Relations Social Processes Groups Social Networks Complex Organizations. Social Processes. Exchange - people bargain for things they want. Not always equitable. Cooperation is basic to human survival.
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Chapter 5 Groups, Networks, and Organizations
Chapter Outline • Human Relations • Social Processes • Groups • Social Networks • Complex Organizations
Social Processes • Exchange - people bargain for things they want. Not always equitable. • Cooperation is basic to human survival. • Competition is inevitable when people perceive a scarcity of resources. • Conflict is struggle over resources. It is often inevitable and functional.
Group Variables • Size. As group size increases, interaction becomes more impersonal and more structured. • Proximity. People are more likely to interact when they are physically close to each other. • Communication patterns. The arrangement of a group affects the communication flow.
Group Variables • Cohesion. Attraction among group members is a measure of group cohesion. • Social control. Fear of not being accepted. • Decisions. Small groups prefer decision by consensus, large groups prefer majority rule. • Choice shifts. Tendency for opinions to converge.
Types of Groups • Primary groups, characterized by intimate, face-to-face interaction, are primary to our human nature. (Families and peer groups) • Secondary groups are formal, large, and highly structured. (Corporations, government agencies, and other secondary groups)
Asch’s Experiment • Subjects were instructed to select the line on Card B that was equal in length to the line on Card A. The results showed that many people will give an obviously wrong answer in order to conform to the group.
Characteristics of Bureaucracy • A specialized division of labor. • A hierarchy of authority. • Formal rules and regulations. • Impersonal relationships. • Careers based on tenure and technical qualification. • Efficiency.
Criticisms of Bureaucracy • Ritualism. Rules may be followed whether they apply or not. • Alienation. The emphasis on impersonal rules and hierarchies may reduce cohesion. • Structured inequality. Tendency to concentrate decision-making in the hands of a few people is seen as antidemocratic.