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Ecology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Why are the cycles important? How do organisms interact with each other? How can we show trends in populations over time? Ecology What does it mean when we talk about the ecosystem? What is Ecology? Ecology The study of interactions between organisms Recall the levels of organization:

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slide1
Why are the cycles important?

How do organisms interact with each other?

How can we show trends in populations over time?

Ecology

ecology
Ecology
  • The study of interactions between organisms
  • Recall the levels of organization:
    • Organism
    • Species
    • Population
    • Community
    • Ecosystem
    • Biome
    • Biosphere
energy flow
Energy Flow
  • Starts at sun
  • Some make food from chemicals, not sun = chemosynthesis
slide7
What about mushrooms on a fallen tree?How are dead deer on the side of the road broken down naturally?
slide10

http://media.ebaumsworld.com/picture/kiltedrufus/FoodChain.pnghttp://media.ebaumsworld.com/picture/kiltedrufus/FoodChain.png

food chain
Food Chain
  • One organism passing energy to the next, and so on
  • Straight line
  • Arrow = the way energy is moving
slide12

http://www.dist102.k12.il.us/resources/Science%20Kids/food-chain.jpghttp://www.dist102.k12.il.us/resources/Science%20Kids/food-chain.jpg

food webs
Food Webs
  • Many organisms giving and receiving energy
  • Arrows = energy movement
trophic level
Trophic Level
  • each step in a food chain or food web
ecological pyramids
Ecological Pyramids
  • Shows the amount of energy or matter in each trophic level of chain or web
  • 3 types
    • Energy- only 10% of energy is transferred to next level
    • Biomass-mass of all the organisms in that level
    • Numbers- how many organisms in that level
slide18

http://www.freewebs.com/the_grey_pilgrim/energy%20pyramid.bmphttp://www.freewebs.com/the_grey_pilgrim/energy%20pyramid.bmp

biomass pyramid
Biomass Pyramid

http://resources.edb.gov.hk/biology/english/images/environment/pyramid.gif

numbers pyramid
Numbers Pyramid

http://www.econguru.com/fundamentals_of_ecology/image/ecological_pyramid.gif

water cycle
Water Cycle
  • Water moving through environments
  • Transpiration- from trees to clouds
  • Evaporation- from body of water to clouds
  • Precipitation- from clouds to ground
  • Condensation- making clouds
  • Run-off- doesn’t soak into soil
  • Ground water- rivers underground
carbon cycle
Carbon Cycle
  • Carbon moving through environments
  • Decomposition- decaying organisms
  • Oil, coal, and fuels come from compressed decayed organisms
slide24

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/climate/images/carboncycle.jpghttp://www.windows.ucar.edu/earth/climate/images/carboncycle.jpg

nitrogen cycle
Nitrogen Cycle
  • Nitrogen moving through environment
  • Plants need nitrogen to make food
phosphorous cycle
Phosphorous Cycle
  • Moving phosphorous through the environment
  • Needed to make DNA and RNA
  • Mostly in rock, minerals, and land
slide28

http://arnica.csustan.edu/carosella/Biol4050W03/figures/phosph1.jpghttp://arnica.csustan.edu/carosella/Biol4050W03/figures/phosph1.jpg

niche
Niche
  • Place an organism holds in an ecosystem, includes what it eats, when it eats, how it mates, how it gets food, and interaction with other organisms
  • Species has evolved to fit that niche PERFECTLY
slide31

http://www.fieldstonealliance.org/client/client_images/cartoon-find_niche.jpghttp://www.fieldstonealliance.org/client/client_images/cartoon-find_niche.jpg

habitat
Habitat
  • Where a species lives, where it can be found
competitive exclusion principle
Competitive Exclusion Principle
  • No two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
competition
Competition
  • Organisms or species fighting over resources
resource
Resource
  • Anything necessary to life: water, sunlight, food, shelter, etc.
predation
Predation
  • Predator feeds on prey

http://www.stanford.edu/~siegelr/tz/tz2006/predatorandprey.jpg

symbiosis
Symbiosis
  • Relationship in which two species live closely together

http://imagecache2.allposters.com/images/pic/JAG/03-PS101-6~Symbiosis-Posters.jpg

mutualism
Mutualism
  • Both benefit

http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=65599&rendTypeId=4

commensalism
Commensalism
  • One benefits, other is not helped harmed

http://www.nearctica.com/ecology/anemonefish.jpg

parasitism
Parasitism
  • One benefits, other is harmed

http://www.cbu.edu/~seisen/ExamplesOfParasitism_files/image008.jpg

primary succession
Primary Succession
  • No soil exists, first organism to come along
  • Happens with volcanoes and rock exposed from glaciers melting
slide42

http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2254/1937932386_03c78fa3e0.jpg?v=1194662963http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2254/1937932386_03c78fa3e0.jpg?v=1194662963

secondary succession
Secondary Succession
  • Soil exists, something was once there, cleared by natural disaster

http://www.prairiefriends.org/image/fire/prescribedBurn1_04..jpg

major biomes
Taiga

Chaparral

Tropical Dry Forest

Tundra

Deciduous Forest

Desert

Tropical Rain Forest

Estuaries

Shrublands

Grassland

Coral Reef

Tropical Savanna

Ocean

Major Biomes
tropical rain forest
Tropical Rain Forest

http://msstrickland.com/eport/Rainforest.jpg

tropical dry forest
Tropical Dry Forest

http://www.stanford.edu/group/seasonally_dry/Dryforest_images/watering_hole.jpg

tropical savanna
Tropical Savanna

http://cache.eb.com/eb/image?id=94366&rendTypeId=4

desert
Desert

http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/china/environment/pictures/desert2.jpg

grasslands
Grasslands

http://grasslands.org.za.dedi539.your-server.de/assets/content_images/Image/Grasslands__SANBI_.JPG

shrublands
Shrublands

http://www.cpluhna.nau.edu/images/grassland17_jdg.jpg

deciduous forest
Deciduous Forest

http://fig.cox.miami.edu/Faculty/Dana/50-16f-TempForest.jpg

taiga
Taiga

http://www.worldexposure.com/taiga/images/taiga2b.jpg

tundra
Tundra

http://teachers.sduhsd.k12.ca.us/hherms/herms/METEOROLOGY/climates/P-tundra_alpine_nt.jpg

limiting nutrient
Limiting Nutrient
  • Nutrient in short supply, will run out first
  • Greatly affects all organisms in the ecosystem