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Dictatorships - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Dictatorships. A Brief Look at Reign & Rule: Haiti Nicaragua Cuba. Haiti. Years of Oppression. 1492 Christopher Columbus discovered Haiti Spanish territory Early 1500's to late 1600's African slaves covered the island of Haiti First black republic in the world .

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Dictatorships l.jpg


A Brief Look at Reign & Rule:




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Years of Oppression

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1492 Christopher Columbus discovered Haiti

Spanish territory

Early 1500's to late 1600's African slaves covered the island of Haiti

First black republic in the world

1697-1790 transformed to a French Colony

Mid-1700's nicknamed “Pearl the Caribbean”

1790-1803 Battle of Vertieres: anti-slavery movement

January 1804: Haiti becomes independent

HaitiTime Line

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1957- Francois 'Papa Doc' Duvalier elected President of Haiti

Papa Doc was Haiti's famous doctor before presidency

Began study of voodoo, Haiti's native religion, later plays significant role in political profit

Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier reveals his desire to return to “rebuild” Haiti in 2002

Believes that Aristide has vast majority against him and has no possibility to rule Haiti

Aristide is overthrown in 1991 & 1994

Exiled after rural uprising

U.S. removes support


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Francois 'Papa Doc' Duvalier died 1971 Haiti

Ruled Haiti for 14 years

Papa Doc passed his lifetime presidency down to his son

Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier, became youngest president, age 19

Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier exiled to France in 1856

Baby Doc ruled Haiti for 15 years

1990 Jean-Bertrand Aristide elected first Democratic President since 1804


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Political parties were banned, curfews introduced, army sizes reduced, military academy closed

Manipulated elections extending his term and provided himself with life-long presidency so he couldn't be overthrown or elected out

Stole millions of dollars from US aid therefore US aid stopped all political relations

Baby Doc uninterested in government details left most all decisions to his mother Simone Ovid Duvalier

Tens of millions of dollars misappropriated by baby Doc

1983- Pope John Paul visits Haiti stating change is needed immediately


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Haiti sizes reduced, military academy closed

Papa Doc realized he needed allies after being isolated for so long

“You scratch my back, and I'll scratch yours”--a deal The Dominican Republic and Haiti made

Next, became allies with Cuba

Manipulated U.S. by saying Papa Doc would help US dispose of Castro

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Haiti sizes reduced, military academy closedToday

  • In 2006, Rene Preval elected President of Haiti

  • Has a new constitution and is a republican government

  • Haiti is still affected from the Duvalier dictatorship with lack of jobs, housing, and proper education

  • Rene Preval is still the President of Haiti as of 2009

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Nicaragua: sizes reduced, military academy closedSomoza Dynasty


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Anastasio Somoza Garcia sizes reduced, military academy closed1937 - 1956

  • Appointed Commander of National Guard at 35 years old.

  • Ordered his men to capture and execute Augusto Cesar Sandino.

  • Killed hundreds of men, women and children.

  • Staged an election, in which he inevitably won.

  • Overthrew former president, Juan B. Sacasa.

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Anastasio Somoza Garcia sizes reduced, military academy closed1937-1956

  • Nickname - “Tacho”

  • Derived power from: ownership of control of large portions of the Nicaraguan economy, the military support of the National Guard, and his acceptance of support from the United States.

  • Family and close friends were given key positions in the government and military.

  • He controlled the liberal party (PLN), which controlled the legislature and judicial systems, thus giving him absolute power.

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The guards loyalty was assured by keeping it in the family. sizes reduced, military academy closed

The guard controlled gambling, prosecution, and smuggling.

Any citizen who wanted to have a business had to bribe or give kickbacks to guardsmen.

The Nicaraguan National Guard was compared to the Mafia at that time.

The National Guard controlled: national radio, telegraph, postal and immigration services, health services, internal revenue services and national railroads.

Somoza earned about 60 million US dollars during his reign.

He owned textile companies, sugar mills, rum distilleries, merchant marine lines, national Nicaraguan airlines and La Salud - the countries only milk pasteurizing plant.

Anastasio Somoza Garcia1937-1956

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Anastasio Somoza Garcia sizes reduced, military academy closed1937-1956

  • He was fatally wounded at a party celebrating his nomination for presidency, by twenty- seven year old Rigoberto Lopez Perez. He was transported to the Panama Canal Zone, he died eight days later.

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After his father was assassinated, Luis took over. sizes reduced, military academy closed

His brother, Anastasio, took over the leadership of the National Guard.

A major political repression campaign followed the assassination.

In 1957, Luis Somoza Debayle was formally elected president.

Blatantly rigged an election in June 1967.

Encouraged corruption and protecting officers from prosecution for crimes committed against civilians.

Replaced skilled administrator with unqualified criminals and political allies.

Luis Somoza Debayle & Anastasio Somoza Debayle(1957-1967)(1967-1979)

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Luis Somoza Debayle sizes reduced, military academy closed(1957-1967)

  • In 1959, Nicaraguan was among the first to condemn the Cuban Revolution, and played a leading role the Bay of Pigs invasion.

  • In 1960, Nicaragua joined El Salvador, Guatemala, and Honduras in the establishment of the Central American Common Market.

  • In 1962, a new opposition group formed, the Sandinista National Liberation Front.

  • In the international political sphere, Luis’s anti-communism stance won government favor and support from the US.

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He took money from a natural disaster relief fund and built the National Guard officers luxury homes.

A group of the Sandinista Liberation Front held a group of Managua’s elite partygoers hostage.

Demanded a large ransom, and to let 14 prisoners free and transport them to Cuba.

Once that happened, Anastasio ordered the National Guard to go into the countryside and take care of the “terrorist”

They tortured, raped and imprisoned innocent peasants.

The Roman Catholic Church got word and told the rest of the world.

The United States pressed Anastasio to stop the terrorism, he eventually did, as well as their freedom of press

Anastasio Somoza Debayle(1967-1979)

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Cuba the National Guard officers luxury homes.

New Ideas

Different People

Endless Disappointment

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Sugar the National Guard officers luxury homes.

  • Main Export

  • Allows government to control all revenue while generating extra money from illegal racketing

  • Created the highest number of jobs

    • “Wage Slaves”

  • Terrible working conditions

  • U.S. was Cuba’s biggest customer

  • Created enormous working class vs. the small group of elite

    • No funds were put back into the economy for Cuba’s benefit

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1933: “Revolt of the Sergeants” the National Guard officers luxury homes.

Helps to overthrow Machado

Begins military influence within the government

Batista’s first action in the politics of Cuba

Cuba’s president from 1940-44

Promoted social welfare, developed economy, and increased worker wages

1952: “Round 2”

Forced President Prio out of office, to gain control by force

Uses military connections to maintain order

Terrorized his people with police brutality, organized crime and cruelty

Profited off of sugar exports (millions)

A New Cuba:Fulgencio Batista

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Afro-Cuban family the National Guard officers luxury homes.

Former Cuban sergeant

Joined in 1921


Backed by the Communist party & labor unions

Military-style dictatorship

Abandoned Cuban constitution

Became a well known friend of the U.S. mafia

Allied with the U.S. government

Cancelled elections


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Batista Brutality the National Guard officers luxury homes.

  • Batista’s police and security forces turned increasingly to torture and murder in an effort to root out the rebellion. The universities, traditional centers of unrest, were closed.

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Fidel Castro vs. Fulgencio Batista the National Guard officers luxury homes.

  • After the Castro brothers and their followers were caught trying to ambush Batista they were sentenced to 15 years, only serving 2, and being exiled to Mexico.

  • In Mexico, they plotted another attempt to overthrow Batista, where they met many Cubans willing to fight for their cause

  • November 1956, they returned on a yacht, raging guerilla war against Batista for years

  • Eventually Castro gained control of a large section of Cuba and led his Cuban Revolutionaries to run Batista out of office in late 1958

  • Batista fled Cuba to Portugal eventually moving to Spain where his life ended from a natural death

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Younger Years: the National Guard officers luxury homes.

Became a lawyer from Havana University

Extremely passionate about social and political justice

Hate towards U.S.’s involvement in Cuban affairs

Multiple violent movements towards removing Batista

Created “The Revolution”

Jailed for 2 years

Years of Ruling Cuba:

False promises of democracy, freedom of press, and no more foreign dependency

50 years of ruling with fear and power, as supreme leader

Kidnapped numerous Americans in response to the U.S.’s involvement with Batista

Allied with the Soviet Union


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Placed homosexuals in concentration camps in the 60’s for “re-education”

Announced major political policies without consultation of anyone

Totalitarian regime

Brutal government social injustices

Closed independent newspapers

Religious institutions being harassed

Suspended habeas corpus

Free health care


Opened 10,000 new schools

Lower homelessness

Hopes to strengthen national identity

Cuba remains the most important aspect of his life

More jobs

Castro Catastrophe & Compensation

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Cuba & Castro Today… “re-education”

  • After 49 years of control, Fidel passed the power to his younger brother last year

  • Cuba remains in extreme economic status

  • Just recently Cuba has opened its land to tourism

  • The hope for a change still holds strong for Cubans

  • The Cuban Missal Crisis has continued to strain the relationship between Cuba and the U.S.

  • The dictatorships ruling the past century has left Cuba angry and fearful with little gain from before the century began