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Chapter 6: Output, Input, And Storage Devices. A Guide to Operating Systems: Troubleshooting and Problem Solving. Chapter Objectives. Review how operating systems interface with input, output, and storage devices Understand the need for software drivers for specific hardware output devices

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chapter 6 output input and storage devices

Chapter 6: Output, Input, And Storage Devices

A Guide to Operating Systems: Troubleshooting and Problem Solving

chapter objectives
Chapter Objectives
  • Review how operating systems interface with input, output, and storage devices
  • Understand the need for software drivers for specific hardware output devices
  • Discuss software driver installation within major operating systems
  • Describe popular printer technologies, connections, and methods of installation
chapter objectives3
Chapter Objectives
  • Discuss general display adapter design, types of adapters, and hardware installation
  • Identify important considerations when installing and using a variety of input devices
  • Understand basic disk drive interface technologies
operating systems an overview
Operating Systems - An Overview
  • Handle input from the keyboard, mouse, and other input devices
  • Handle output to the screen, printer, and other output devices
  • Control information storage and retrieval using various types of disk drives
  • Support communications with remote computers
installing input output or storage devices
Installing Input, Output, or Storage Devices
  • This is accomplished in two steps:
    • Install any software drivers that are required
    • Set up the hardware
locating drivers from the internet
Locating Drivers From the Internet
  • Choose the specific device model
  • Peripheral product information and model types can be found on their respective manufacturer’s web pages
  • Click download to install driver
  • Drivers may come compressed
zip and unzip files
Zip and Unzip Files
  • Drivers may come compressed as WINZIP or PKZIP files
  • PC users use the PKZIP or WINZIP compression/decompression utilities
  • PC executable files normally use an EXE file extension
  • Driver archives with EXE extensions are know as self-extracting file
  • Macintosh users can use ZIP-format archives called Stuff It
  • UNIX system users may retrieve drivers and other software in a tar format
manufacturer driver installation
Manufacturer Driver Installation
  • Typically the manufacturer’s install utilities are fully automatic.
  • Newer printers, plotters, and other devices usually come with extensive support material on CD-ROM.
  • Simply follow on screen prompts.
dos driver installation
DOS Driver Installation
  • May include automatic driver installation
  • DOS drivers are installed and configured by adding statements in two system-level files, CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT
  • You can edit these files with any text editor (the intrinsic DOS EDIT utility is a good choice).
dos autoexec bat file

C:\windows\Net Start


echo off

call pmpt

set compspec=c:\

loadhigh c:\mouse\mscmouse /a5

loadhigh doskey

doskey dir = dir $1 /p /on

PATH C: \WINDOWS;c:\;c:\dos;c:\wp51


loadhigh mode con: rate=30 delay=1

doskey cls=c:\utility\melt

doskey dir = dir $1 /on /p

Figure 6-2 Typcial DOS AUTOEXEC.BAT file

config sys commands
  • CONFIG.SYS file loads first. It includes commands to load low-level drivers and to configure memory
  • General format for CONFIG.SYS file commands is: device=<path> filename
autoexec bat commands
  • AUTOEXEC.BAT functions at a higher level than CONFIG.SYS
  • AUTOEXEC issues DOS commands as if they were typed at the command prompt
  • Commands in AUTOEXEC.BAT are used to launch external programs, applications that run outside of DOS
  • Other AUTOEXEC.BAT commands can conduct final configuration of the system as it boots
windows driver installation 3 1x
Windows Driver Installation (3.1x)
  • Most drivers are supplied on CD-ROM or floppy disk
  • Windows 3.1x starts at the control panel
  • Select the main application icon
windows 95 98 plug and play
Windows 95 / 98 Plug and Play
  • Printer Installation:
  • Shut down the system by choosing Shut Down from the Start menu
  • Turn off the power
  • Connect the printer to the computer’s printer port
  • Plug the printer into a power outlet and turn it on
  • Turn on the computer
windows nt printer installation
Windows NT Printer Installation
  • Many Windows NT 4.0 screens look very similar to Windows 95/98 screens.
  • Installing a printer in Windows NT is quite similar to installing a printer in Windows 95/98.
  • Open the Control Panel. Double-click the Printer icon to display the Printers dialog box.
windows nt printer installation24
Windows NT Printer Installation
  • Double-click the Add Printer icon to start the Add Printer Wizard.
  • Follow the prompts.
  • Specify if this printer will be shared with other users on a network and assign a Share Name.
    • Share Name is used to locate and connect other users to your printer
mac os driver installation
Mac OS Driver Installation
  • Chooser is Apple’s tool for selecting printers.
  • Chooser first checks to see if drivers are currently installed that are compatible with the printer.
  • If your printer isn’t listed, you should try the next higher-numbered printer in the Chooser.
  • If you aren’t sure that you have all Apple printer drivers installed, you may need to install them, which requires re-running part of the Mac OS installer
unix driver installation
UNIX Driver Installation
  • The central portion of the UNIX operating system, known as the Kernel, is where most UNIX device drivers are loaded.
  • Device drivers are either in the form of kernel modules, or loadable modules, similar pieces of code not linked into the Kernel
  • Since UNIX uses a print queue or spooler, it temporarily stores print jobs sent from an application
  • All definitions of printers and queues are kept in a file /etc/printcap and maintained in plain ASCII
  • The UNIX platform has traditionally used PostScript printers
printer types
Printer Types
  • The following types of printers are most popular today
    • Dot matrix impact printers - produce characters by slamming a group of wire pins (dots) onto a ribbon and paper
    • Ink-jet printers - another form of dot matrix printer that creates characters by squirting tiny droplets onto the page
    • Laser printers - use an imaging technology similar to copiers to produce a computer output, and are probably the most popular printer for business text and graphics
specialized printer designs
Specialized Printer Designs
  • Line Printers - The earliest impact printer, which prints an entire line at a time rather than a character at a time, fast but extremely noisy
  • Thermal-wax transfer - Two basic designs exist.
    • First design uses rolls of plastic film coated with colored wax, which is melted onto the page.
    • Second design melts wax stored in individual colored sticks then sprays molten colored wax onto page.
  • Dye sublimation - Vaporized pigments and gas penetrate the surface of the paper to create an image on the page.
  • Imagesetter - Creates high quality output used in printing industry to produce final output or page masters for offset printing.
printer connections
Printer Connections
  • Serial Port - uses a 9-pin connector for asynchronous (one signal at a time) communication
  • Parallel Port - manages communications between computer and peripherals in which data flows in parallel streams
  • Centronics interface - uses 36-pin connector which works like a parallel port
    • UNIX machines and most modern PCs use the 25-pin (DB-25) parallel connector
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) - high-speed I/O port found on most modern computers
  • Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) - similar technology but slower than USB
  • DIN8M - used for Apple printers
basic display adapter technology
Basic Display Adapter Technology
  • The basic display consists of 640 pixels horizontally and 480 pixels vertically.
    • Pixel - a picture element that represents one small portion of the overall screen
    • More pixels are displayed with larger monitors
  • Good quality files are produced at 300 dpi (dots per inch). High-quality brochures may be printed at 1200 dpi.
  • World Wide Web designers use 256 colors to ensure the broadest compatibility with hardware in use by Web browsers.
avoiding the enemy of devices
Avoiding the Enemy of Devices
  • Static - high voltage, low current charges that exist between two devices
  • Keep expansion cards in factory packaging until ready to use
  • Prepare computer by removing case and any slot covers
  • Hold card in one hand and touch metal case of power supply or chassis with the other hand to discharge static buildup
  • Insert the card carefully into chosen slot and press it firmly into place
sound cards and other output devices
Sound Cards and Other Output Devices
  • There are two general types of sound devices:
    • Bus cards
    • Hardware integral to the motherboard
  • Integral motherboard sound hardware is harder to update or change.
  • Multi-port sound cards permit a computer to serve as a fully digital, multi-channel recorder for sound studio applications.
  • Digital video - captures video and allows output to a camera or VCR
  • Digital audio stream - output to minidisk or DAT (Digital Audio Tape) recorders
standard input devices
Standard Input Devices
  • Keyboard and mouse ports - serial & PS/2 ports
  • No special drivers required
  • Keyboard driver routines and custom configuration utilities are included with newer operating systems
other input devices
Digital Tablets



Game Pads

Digital sound input

Digital picture

Video input

Other Input Devices
computer storage options
Single 3.5-inch floppy drive

Zip disk

Internal, fixed hard drives


DVD drive

Computer Storage Options
different hard drive interfaces
Different Hard Drive Interfaces
  • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) - storage protocol that simplifies the hardware required inside the computer, placing more of the disk intelligence at the hard drive itself
    • Master - first or main drive
    • Slave - secondary storage device
  • Extended IDE (EIDE) - more modern, faster version of IDE, Mode 3.0 will support transfer speeds as high as 33 megabits per second
small computer system interface scsi terminator resistor packs
Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) & Terminator Resistor Packs
  • SCSI (scuzzy) - A computer input/output bus standard and the hardware that uses this standard
  • Terminator resistor packs (TRPS) - sets of resistors used on a hard drive or other storage device to reduce the possibility of data echoes on the interface bus as information travels between the computer’s controller and the storage device
more small computer system interface
More Small Computer System Interface
  • SCSI-1 normally uses a DB-25 connector
  • SCSI-2 and Fast SCSI-2 typically use either a DB25 or a Mini DBC-50 connector
  • Two most common problems with SCSI installations:
    • terminators
    • total cable length
  • SCSI-1 is an 8 bit wide bus
  • SCSI-2 is 16 bit wide bus
raid arrays
RAID Arrays
  • Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives (RAID) inexpensive storage design that uses multiple disks to reduce the chance of data loss in the event of hardware failure. RAID uses various designs - Level 0 through Level 5
  • Advantages:
    • increased reliability
    • increased storage capacity
    • increased speed
compact disc cd rom technology
Compact Disc (CD-ROM) Technology
  • Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)Instead of using a system of tracks and sectors, CDs use a big “spiral” that starts at the inside and winds toward the outside. Laser light is emitted by the drive in order to read the disk.
    • stores about 650 MB data on a single sided disc
    • transfer speed is roughly 150 KB per second
digital versatile disc dvd technology
Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) Technology
  • Digital versatile disc (DVD) - a high capacity CD-ROM-like hardware device used for high quality audio, motion video and computer data storage
  • Totally optical drive
  • Data is written on the disc in the form of a spiral of blocks
  • Storage capacity and data transfer rate of DVD are much higher but size of disk is the same
  • DVD disc can have two sides with up to two layers per side
  • One DVD disk can store roughly 22 GB of data
removable disks
Removable Disks
  • Removable disks - use removable cartridges for data backup, long-term offline storage, and data portability among multiple computer systems
  • SuperDisk (LS-120) - increasingly popular high capacity floppy disk design can store as much as 120 MB of data on single disk, but can read conventional 3.5 inch disks
  • Zip disk - removable high capacity floppy disk design, stores a nominal 100 MB of data
chapter summary
Chapter Summary

Chapter Six:

  • Provides a conceptual overview of how operating systems interface with input, output, and storage devices
  • Covers the setup of devices for both hardware and software
  • Covers general steps of the installation of driver software
  • Describes several printer and computer storage technologies