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Chapter 6: Output, Input, And Storage Devices. A Guide to Operating Systems: Troubleshooting and Problem Solving. Chapter Objectives. Review how operating systems interface with input, output, and storage devices Understand the need for software drivers for specific hardware output devices

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Chapter 6 output input and storage devices l.jpg

Chapter 6: Output, Input, And Storage Devices

A Guide to Operating Systems: Troubleshooting and Problem Solving


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Chapter Objectives

  • Review how operating systems interface with input, output, and storage devices

  • Understand the need for software drivers for specific hardware output devices

  • Discuss software driver installation within major operating systems

  • Describe popular printer technologies, connections, and methods of installation


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Chapter Objectives

  • Discuss general display adapter design, types of adapters, and hardware installation

  • Identify important considerations when installing and using a variety of input devices

  • Understand basic disk drive interface technologies


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Operating Systems - An Overview

  • Handle input from the keyboard, mouse, and other input devices

  • Handle output to the screen, printer, and other output devices

  • Control information storage and retrieval using various types of disk drives

  • Support communications with remote computers


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Installing Input, Output, or Storage Devices

  • This is accomplished in two steps:

    • Install any software drivers that are required

    • Set up the hardware


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Locating Drivers From the Internet

  • Choose the specific device model

  • Peripheral product information and model types can be found on their respective manufacturer’s web pages

  • Click download to install driver

  • Drivers may come compressed


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Zip and Unzip Files

  • Drivers may come compressed as WINZIP or PKZIP files

  • PC users use the PKZIP or WINZIP compression/decompression utilities

  • PC executable files normally use an EXE file extension

  • Driver archives with EXE extensions are know as self-extracting file

  • Macintosh users can use ZIP-format archives called Stuff It

  • UNIX system users may retrieve drivers and other software in a tar format


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Manufacturer Driver Installation

  • Typically the manufacturer’s install utilities are fully automatic.

  • Newer printers, plotters, and other devices usually come with extensive support material on CD-ROM.

  • Simply follow on screen prompts.


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DOS Driver Installation

  • May include automatic driver installation

  • DOS drivers are installed and configured by adding statements in two system-level files, CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT

  • You can edit these files with any text editor (the intrinsic DOS EDIT utility is a good choice).



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DOS AUTOEXEC.BAT File

C:\windows\Net Start

A:\SMARTDRV.EXE

echo off

call pmpt

set compspec=c:\command.com

loadhigh c:\mouse\mscmouse /a5

loadhigh doskey

doskey dir = dir $1 /p /on

PATH C: \WINDOWS;c:\;c:\dos;c:\wp51

SET TEMP=C:\WINDOWS\TEMP

loadhigh mode con: rate=30 delay=1

doskey cls=c:\utility\melt

doskey dir = dir $1 /on /p

Figure 6-2 Typcial DOS AUTOEXEC.BAT file


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CONFIG.SYS Commands

  • CONFIG.SYS file loads first. It includes commands to load low-level drivers and to configure memory

  • General format for CONFIG.SYS file commands is: device=<path> filename



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AUTOEXEC.BAT Commands

  • AUTOEXEC.BAT functions at a higher level than CONFIG.SYS

  • AUTOEXEC issues DOS commands as if they were typed at the command prompt

  • Commands in AUTOEXEC.BAT are used to launch external programs, applications that run outside of DOS

  • Other AUTOEXEC.BAT commands can conduct final configuration of the system as it boots


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Windows Driver Installation (3.1x)

  • Most drivers are supplied on CD-ROM or floppy disk

  • Windows 3.1x starts at the control panel

  • Select the main application icon







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Windows 95 / 98 Plug and Play

  • Printer Installation:

  • Shut down the system by choosing Shut Down from the Start menu

  • Turn off the power

  • Connect the printer to the computer’s printer port

  • Plug the printer into a power outlet and turn it on

  • Turn on the computer



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Windows NT Printer Installation

  • Many Windows NT 4.0 screens look very similar to Windows 95/98 screens.

  • Installing a printer in Windows NT is quite similar to installing a printer in Windows 95/98.

  • Open the Control Panel. Double-click the Printer icon to display the Printers dialog box.


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Windows NT Printer Installation

  • Double-click the Add Printer icon to start the Add Printer Wizard.

  • Follow the prompts.

  • Specify if this printer will be shared with other users on a network and assign a Share Name.

    • Share Name is used to locate and connect other users to your printer





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Mac OS Driver Installation

  • Chooser is Apple’s tool for selecting printers.

  • Chooser first checks to see if drivers are currently installed that are compatible with the printer.

  • If your printer isn’t listed, you should try the next higher-numbered printer in the Chooser.

  • If you aren’t sure that you have all Apple printer drivers installed, you may need to install them, which requires re-running part of the Mac OS installer






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UNIX Driver Installation

  • The central portion of the UNIX operating system, known as the Kernel, is where most UNIX device drivers are loaded.

  • Device drivers are either in the form of kernel modules, or loadable modules, similar pieces of code not linked into the Kernel

  • Since UNIX uses a print queue or spooler, it temporarily stores print jobs sent from an application

  • All definitions of printers and queues are kept in a file /etc/printcap and maintained in plain ASCII

  • The UNIX platform has traditionally used PostScript printers


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Printer Types

  • The following types of printers are most popular today

    • Dot matrix impact printers - produce characters by slamming a group of wire pins (dots) onto a ribbon and paper

    • Ink-jet printers - another form of dot matrix printer that creates characters by squirting tiny droplets onto the page

    • Laser printers - use an imaging technology similar to copiers to produce a computer output, and are probably the most popular printer for business text and graphics


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Specialized Printer Designs

  • Line Printers - The earliest impact printer, which prints an entire line at a time rather than a character at a time, fast but extremely noisy

  • Thermal-wax transfer - Two basic designs exist.

    • First design uses rolls of plastic film coated with colored wax, which is melted onto the page.

    • Second design melts wax stored in individual colored sticks then sprays molten colored wax onto page.

  • Dye sublimation - Vaporized pigments and gas penetrate the surface of the paper to create an image on the page.

  • Imagesetter - Creates high quality output used in printing industry to produce final output or page masters for offset printing.


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Printer Connections

  • Serial Port - uses a 9-pin connector for asynchronous (one signal at a time) communication

  • Parallel Port - manages communications between computer and peripherals in which data flows in parallel streams

  • Centronics interface - uses 36-pin connector which works like a parallel port

    • UNIX machines and most modern PCs use the 25-pin (DB-25) parallel connector

  • Universal Serial Bus (USB) - high-speed I/O port found on most modern computers

  • Apple Desktop Bus (ADB) - similar technology but slower than USB

  • DIN8M - used for Apple printers


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Basic Display Adapter Technology

  • The basic display consists of 640 pixels horizontally and 480 pixels vertically.

    • Pixel - a picture element that represents one small portion of the overall screen

    • More pixels are displayed with larger monitors

  • Good quality files are produced at 300 dpi (dots per inch). High-quality brochures may be printed at 1200 dpi.

  • World Wide Web designers use 256 colors to ensure the broadest compatibility with hardware in use by Web browsers.


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Avoiding the Enemy of Devices

  • Static - high voltage, low current charges that exist between two devices

  • Keep expansion cards in factory packaging until ready to use

  • Prepare computer by removing case and any slot covers

  • Hold card in one hand and touch metal case of power supply or chassis with the other hand to discharge static buildup

  • Insert the card carefully into chosen slot and press it firmly into place


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Sound Cards and Other Output Devices

  • There are two general types of sound devices:

    • Bus cards

    • Hardware integral to the motherboard

  • Integral motherboard sound hardware is harder to update or change.

  • Multi-port sound cards permit a computer to serve as a fully digital, multi-channel recorder for sound studio applications.

  • Digital video - captures video and allows output to a camera or VCR

  • Digital audio stream - output to minidisk or DAT (Digital Audio Tape) recorders


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Standard Input Devices

  • Keyboard and mouse ports - serial & PS/2 ports

  • No special drivers required

  • Keyboard driver routines and custom configuration utilities are included with newer operating systems





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Digital Tablets

Scanners

Joysticks

Game Pads

Digital sound input

Digital picture

Video input

Other Input Devices


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Single 3.5-inch floppy drive

Zip disk

Internal, fixed hard drives

CD-ROM

DVD drive

Computer Storage Options


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Different Hard Drive Interfaces

  • Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) - storage protocol that simplifies the hardware required inside the computer, placing more of the disk intelligence at the hard drive itself

    • Master - first or main drive

    • Slave - secondary storage device

  • Extended IDE (EIDE) - more modern, faster version of IDE, Mode 3.0 will support transfer speeds as high as 33 megabits per second


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Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) & Terminator Resistor Packs

  • SCSI (scuzzy) - A computer input/output bus standard and the hardware that uses this standard

  • Terminator resistor packs (TRPS) - sets of resistors used on a hard drive or other storage device to reduce the possibility of data echoes on the interface bus as information travels between the computer’s controller and the storage device


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More Small Computer System Interface Packs

  • SCSI-1 normally uses a DB-25 connector

  • SCSI-2 and Fast SCSI-2 typically use either a DB25 or a Mini DBC-50 connector

  • Two most common problems with SCSI installations:

    • terminators

    • total cable length

  • SCSI-1 is an 8 bit wide bus

  • SCSI-2 is 16 bit wide bus


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RAID Arrays Packs

  • Redundant Array of Inexpensive Drives (RAID) inexpensive storage design that uses multiple disks to reduce the chance of data loss in the event of hardware failure. RAID uses various designs - Level 0 through Level 5

  • Advantages:

    • increased reliability

    • increased storage capacity

    • increased speed


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Compact Disc (CD-ROM) Technology Packs

  • Compact disc read-only memory (CD-ROM)Instead of using a system of tracks and sectors, CDs use a big “spiral” that starts at the inside and winds toward the outside. Laser light is emitted by the drive in order to read the disk.

    • stores about 650 MB data on a single sided disc

    • transfer speed is roughly 150 KB per second


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Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) Technology Packs

  • Digital versatile disc (DVD) - a high capacity CD-ROM-like hardware device used for high quality audio, motion video and computer data storage

  • Totally optical drive

  • Data is written on the disc in the form of a spiral of blocks

  • Storage capacity and data transfer rate of DVD are much higher but size of disk is the same

  • DVD disc can have two sides with up to two layers per side

  • One DVD disk can store roughly 22 GB of data


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Removable Disks Packs

  • Removable disks - use removable cartridges for data backup, long-term offline storage, and data portability among multiple computer systems

  • SuperDisk (LS-120) - increasingly popular high capacity floppy disk design can store as much as 120 MB of data on single disk, but can read conventional 3.5 inch disks

  • Zip disk - removable high capacity floppy disk design, stores a nominal 100 MB of data


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Chapter Summary Packs

Chapter Six:

  • Provides a conceptual overview of how operating systems interface with input, output, and storage devices

  • Covers the setup of devices for both hardware and software

  • Covers general steps of the installation of driver software

  • Describes several printer and computer storage technologies