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4/5/06 Agenda Quiz on reading Check Reading Notes Finish Lecture: Civil Liberties The Bureaucracy. Please get out a separate sheet of paper. Thank you! Title the paper Chapter 17 Quiz and put your heading in the upper right corner. Number the paper 1-4.
Quiz on reading
Check Reading Notes
Finish Lecture: Civil Liberties
Title the paper Chapter 17 Quiz and put your heading in the upper right corner.
Number the paper 1-4.
Hire people for all government jobs
Handle discipline problems with employees
Handles laws, rules, and regulations of government jobs
Handle criminal investigations for government officials accused of wrongdoing
Criticize and advise the executive branch on policy decisions
Serve as advisors for the legislative branch
Implement policy after a bill has been signed into law
Control how much money goes to different bureaucratic agencies
A) Cross between a business and a government agency
B) A business that also governs a country
C) A business that lets its workers vote for the leadership
D) A non-profit organization
A) Placed severe limitations on political participation for civil service
B) Set temperature rules for incubators
C) Made it easier for civil service employees to participate in politics
D) Has never been amended or changed.
(Period 2: Check Ch.5 Reading Notes also)
Title the page Civil Liberties and get ready to take lecture notes.
Title the page The Bureaucracy and get ready for more notes. Yay!
A. Any organization with job specialization and formal rules, not privately owned, hierarchical authority.
1. Bureaucrat: a person in a bureaucracy.
2. Purpose is to carry out the policy decisions of President and Congress.
3. General Motors, the Southern Baptist Convention, the Catholic Church, and the Department of Justice are all examples of bureaucracies. (Note: some are not affiliated with the government)
1. Nearly all Federal bureaucracy is the executive branch.
2. The Constitution gives almost NO guidance
3. Three major agencies: the Executive Office of the President; the 14 cabinet departments; and independent agencies.
4. They affect public policy as follows:
a. delaying implementation of policy
b. writing rules
c. enforcing such rules
d. adjudicating conflicting interests.
1. "department“-- agencies of cabinet rank
2. "administration" or "agency“-- any governmental body headed by a single administrator of near-cabinet rank. “Agency and “administration” are used interchangeably.
3. ”Commission”--agencies charged with regulation of business.
4. "corporation" and "authority" : agencies with a board and a manager who conduct business-like activities.
5. The above terms are not used consistently.
1. An employee of the federal government hired on merit rather than political affiliation. There are approximately three million civil servants (17 million if state and local public employees are included) in government.
2. Until 100 years ago, a person got a job with the government through the spoils system (Andrew Jackson)
3. Assassination of Garfield (1881)The Pendleton Act of 1883 created a system in which federal employees were chosen on the basis of merit, not the spoils system.
4. President Jimmy Carter improved the system with the the Civil Service Reform Act of 1978. Reforms included:
a. The Office of Personnel Management (OPM), which tests and hires federal workers.
b. The Merit System Protection Board which enforces the merit system.
c. Today, most federal agencies are covered by some sort of civil service system, based on the merit principle.
a. Non-partisan civil service meant insulating government workers from being fired when a new party comes to power.
b. The Hatch Act (1939) prohibited civil servants from active participation in partisan politics. After revision in 1993, civil servants could:
1) Vote in primary elections
2) Contribute money to a political party
3) Attend apolitical rally, and
4) Place a bumper sticker on their personal property
5) PRIOR to1993 , civil servants were prohibited from campaigning
6. Salaries are proposed by the Civil Service System. At low/ middle levels, pay is comparable to the private sector. At higher levels, it is lower. Example: the Secretary of Transportation paid less than CEO of General Motors.
A. The Cabinet
1.Cabinet:Presidential advisory body, composed of heads of the executive departments and other officers the President chooses.
1. The head of each department is the secretary, except for the Justice Department which is headed by Attorney General.
2. Department secretaries appointed by the President with approval of Senate. Cabinet members can be fired by the President.
3. Together, the department secretaries serve as the President's cabinet. (page 369 in textbook)
4. Cabinet departments organized into units based on geography. A cabinet member has "gone native" when he/she places their priorities above the president’s priorities
B. Independent Agencies
1. Is created by Congress. Operates outside the cabinet
2. Is part of the executive branch of government.
3. Four reasons why they exist outside the cabinet.
a. Functions don’t fit into the existing departments.
b. Independent to protect officials from political pressures
c. Some are Independent to make them responsive to interest-group pressures
d. Some are independent because of the sensitive nature of their functions.
a. independent executive agencies
b. independent regulatory commissions
c. government corporations.
5. The Office of Personnel Management, the Peace Corps and the Civil Rights Commission are independent executive agencies which are "supposed" to be free from political influence.
6. Executive departments, on the other hand, are supposed to be biased. a. Department of Labor which was created for labor unions b. Department of Veterans' Affairs represents military veterans.
c. Unions and veterans are important groups in American politics.
1. Examples: The Civil Rights Commission and Peace Corps.
2. Organized under a single administrator and have subunits that operate on a regional basis.
D. The Independent Regulatory Commissions (Agencies)
1. Created to regulate the nation's economy.
2. Are quasi-legislative bodies which operate largely outside presidential control.
a. Members are appointed by the President and approved by the Senate. They CANNOT be removed by the President at will.
b. Members often have experience in the industry they regulate. (Can lead to Iron
c. These commissions must have members of both parties.
d. Members cannot be removed for political reasons.
3. These regulatory bodies possess all three powers - executive, legislative, and judicial - are exceptions to the principle of separation of powers.
1. Provide a service that can be handled by the private sector. These corporations are in the executive branch, controlled by the President.
2. Officers appointed by the President with Senate confirmation and are public officials. Postal Service and Tennessee Valley Authority are examples of government corporations.
3. Controversy: are government corporations accountable to the public? Advantage most often claimed is their flexibility.
III. Understanding Bureaucracies
A. Presidents and Congress have difficulty in controlling bureaucracies due to the existence of "iron triangles.” (refer back to earlier notes for information on this)