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Chapter 23. The Pesticide Dilemma. What is a Pesticide?. First-Generation Pesticides Inorganic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury) Botanicals (e.g., nicotine, pyrethrin). Pyrethrin is used against mosquitos Nicotine has been banned as pesticide since 2001.

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what is a pesticide
What is a Pesticide?
  • First-Generation Pesticides
  • Inorganic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury)
  • Botanicals (e.g., nicotine, pyrethrin)

Pyrethrin is used against mosquitos

Nicotine has been banned as pesticide since 2001

what is a pesticide4
What is a Pesticide?
  • Second-Generation Pesticides
  • Synthetic botanicals (e.g., pyrethroids)
  • DDT
what is a pesticide5
What is a Pesticide?
  • The Major Groups of Insecticides
  • Chlorinated hydrocarbon (e.g., DDT)
  • Organophosphates (e.g., malathion) The chemicals in this class kill insects by disrupting their brains and nervous systems. Unfortunately, these chemicals also can harm the brains and nervous systems of animals and humans
  • Carbamates (e.g., carbaryl)
slide6

SHORT-TERM HEALTH HAZARDS

- The carbamate pesticides listed above are highly poisonous chemicals, with the exception of carbaryl

(SEVIN), which is moderately poisonous.

- All these chemicals can be absorbed through the skin, especially through cuts and scratches, so direct contact

should be avoided.

- Carbamates are highly irritating to the eyes.

LONG-TERM HEALTH HAZARDS

- Carbamates are generally not considered to be cancerous, with two exceptions. Carbaryl (SEVIN) and

carbofuran (FURADAN) can mix with other elements in the stomach to form possible cancerous chemicals.

- Some carbamates, such as carbofuran (FURADAN), have been shown to cause birth defects or reproduction

problems in laboratory animals. Further studies are required for specific compounds.

- Carbamates do not accumulate and persist in the body.

what is a pesticide7
What is a Pesticide?
  • The Major Kinds of Herbicides
  • Selective herbicides
  • (e.g., 2,4-D – kills broad-leaved plants)
  • Nonselective herbicides
  • (e.g., glyphosate, aka: Round-UpTM)
  • http://www.scotts.com/smg/brand/roundup/game/roundup_game.html
slide8

Did somebody

say “roundup”?

I love horsies!!!

benefits and problems with pesticides
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Location of malaria

  • Benefit: Disease Control
benefits and problems with pesticides10
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
  • Benefit: Crop production
  • Farmers save ~$3 - $5 in crops for every $1 invested into pesticides

Mo money, mo money, mo money!!!

benefits and problems with pesticides11
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

# of species exhibiting genetic resistance to pesticides

  • Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance
benefits and problems with pesticides12
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Kills most pests

Resistant survive

INCREASE

Numbers increase

EVEN MORE

New population genetically resistant

  • Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance
  • Creates a pesticide treadmill

Pesticide application

benefits and problems with pesticides13
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
  • Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance
  • Resistance Management
  • Create a “refuge” (no pesticide applied)
  • Avoid repeated use of same pesticide
benefits and problems with pesticides14
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
  • Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem
slide15

California red scale was introduced into California between 1868 and 1875, apparently on citrus seedlings from Australia. The scale insect is native to Southeast Asia but has been transported on citrus seedlings to all arid and semiarid regions of the world where citrus is grown. It occurs in all of California's citrus growing areas.

benefits and problems with pesticides16
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
  • Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem
  • Creation of New Pests
benefits and problems with pesticides17
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Biomagnification of DDT

  • Problem: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification
benefits and problems with pesticides18
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides
  • Problem: Mobility in the Environment
risks of pesticides to human health
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health
  • Short-term Effects of Pesticides
  • Handling of food with pesticide residue
slide22

There are two types of exposure: chronic and acute, like me!!!

Move over Bowles, that’s my line!!!

risks of pesticides to human health23
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health
  • Short-term Effects of Pesticides
  • Case-in-Point: The Bhopal Disaster
  • 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas released
  • 600,000 people exposed
  • 2,500 immediately killed
  • 2,500 more killed through time
  • 50,000-60,000 have serious health problems
risks of pesticides to human health24
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health
  • Long-term Effects of Pesticides
  • Potentially higher risk of cancer
  • Sterility
  • Miscarriage / birth defects
  • Potentially higher risk for Parkinson’s disease
alternatives to pesticides
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Using Cultivation Methods to Control Pests
  • Interplant mixtures of plants
  • Strip cutting
  • Planting, fertilizing, and irrigating at proper time
  • Crop rotation
alternatives to pesticides26
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Biological Controls
  • Using naturally occurring diseases, parasites, or predators to control a pest
  • Pheromones and Hormones
  • Use pheromones to attract insects to traps
  • Synthetic hormones induce abnormal development
  • Reproductive Controls
  • Sterile-male technique – inundate pest population with large numbers of sterile males
alternatives to pesticides27
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Genetic Controls
  • Using Genetically Modified plants (GMOs)
  • Case-in-Point: Bt, Its Potential and Problems
  • Genetically modified corn to produce Bt toxin
  • Potential problem: may affect non-target species, such as monarch butterfly
  • Quarantine
alternatives to pesticides28
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Integrated Pest Management
alternatives to pesticides29
Alternatives to Pesticides

IPM introduced

  • Integrated Pest Management

Rice Production in Indonesia

alternatives to pesticides30
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Irradiating Foods
  • Predominantly used on meats
  • Kills many microorganisms

This really makes Zombies! No listen to me, they will take over the world, they already live in the oceans!!!

laws controlling pesticide use
Laws Controlling Pesticide Use

Estimates of Risk of Cancer from Pesticide Residue

  • Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)
  • Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)
  • Delaney Cause (1958)
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)
laws controlling pesticide use32
Laws Controlling Pesticide Use
  • Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)
  • Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)
  • Delaney Cause (1958)
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)
  • Food Quality Protection Act (1996)
the manufacture and use of banned pesticides
The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides
  • Some US companies still make banned or seriously restricted pesticides and export the product.
  • This can potentially lead to the importation of food tainted with banned pesticides

Soylent Green is People!

the manufacture and use of banned pesticides34
The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides
  • The Global Ban of Persistent Organic Pollutants