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Chapter 23. The Pesticide Dilemma. Types of Pesticides. 23.1. INSECTICIDES Kill insects by blocking reproduction, clogging airways or disrupting nervous system HERBICIDES Kill weeds by disrupting metabolism & growth FUNGICIDES Fungus killers RODENTICIDES Rat & mouse killers.

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The Pesticide Dilemma


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types of pesticides
Types of Pesticides

23.1

  • INSECTICIDES
    • Kill insects by blocking reproduction, clogging airways or disrupting nervous system
  • HERBICIDES
    • Kill weeds by disrupting metabolism & growth
  • FUNGICIDES
    • Fungus killers
  • RODENTICIDES
    • Rat & mouse killers
what is a pesticide
What is a Pesticide?

23.2

Pyrethrin is derived from chrysanthemum flowers.

First-Generation Pesticides

  • Inorganic compounds (e.g., lead, mercury)
  • Botanicals (e.g., nicotine, pyrethrin)
what is a pesticide1
What is a Pesticide?

Second-Generation Pesticides

  • Synthetic botanicals (e.g., pyrethroids)
  • DDT
major classes
MAJOR CLASSES

The Major Groups of Insecticides

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbon (e.g., DDT)
  • Organophosphates (e.g., malathion)
  • Carbamates (e.g., carbaryl)
table 23 1 page 520
Table 23-1Page 520

Table 23-1 Major Types of Pesticides

Type

Insecticides

Chlorinated

hydrocarbons

Organophosphates

Carbamates

Botanicals

Microbotanicals

Examples

DDT, aldrin, dieldrin, toxaphene, lindane, chlordane, methoxychlor, mirex

Malathion, parathion, diazinon, TEPP, DDVP,mevinphos

Aldicarb, carbaryl (Sevin), propoxur,

maneb, zineb

Rotenone, pyrethrum, and camphor

extracted from plants, synthetic pyrethroids (variations of pyrethrum), rotenoids (variations of rotenone), and neonicotinoids

(variations of nicotine)

Various bacteria, fungi, protozoa

Persistence

High (2–15 years)

Low to moderate (1–2 weeks), but some can last several years

Low (days to weeks)

Low (days to weeks)

Low (days to weeks)

Biologically Magnified?

Yes

No

No

No

No

table 23 1 page 5201
Table 23-1Page 520

Table 23-1 Major Types of Pesticides

Type

Herbicides

Contact chemicals

Systemic chemicals

Soil sterilants

Fungicides

Various chemicals

Fumigants

Various chemicals

Examples

Atrazine, simazine, paraquat

2,4-D, 2,4,5-T, Silvex, diuron,

daminozide (Alar), alachlor (Lasso),

glyphosate (Roundup)

Tribulan, diphenamid, dalapon, butylate

Captan, pentachlorophenol, zeneb, methyl bromide, carbon bisulfide

Carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dibromide, methyl bromide

Persistence

Low (days to weeks)

Mostly low

(days to weeks)

Low (days)

Most low (days)

Mostly high

Biologically Magnified?

No

No

No

No

Yes (for most)

what is a pesticide2
What is a Pesticide?

The Major Kinds of Herbicides

  • Selective herbicides

(e.g., 2,4-D – kills broad-leaved plants)

  • Nonselective herbicides

(e.g., glyphosate, aka: Round-UpTM)

benefits and problems with pesticides
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Location of malaria

Benefit: Disease Control

benefits and problems with pesticides1
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Benefit: Crop production

Farmers save ~$3 - $5 in crops for every $1 invested into pesticides

benefits and problems with pesticides2
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

# of species exhibiting genetic resistance to pesticides

Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance

benefits and problems with pesticides3
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Kills most pests

Resistant survive

INCREASE

Numbers increase

EVEN MORE

New population genetically resistant

Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance

Creates a pesticide treadmill

Pesticide application

benefits and problems with pesticides4
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Problem: Evolution of Genetic Resistance

Resistance Management

  • Create a “refuge” (no pesticide applied)
  • Avoid repeated use of same pesticide
benefits and problems with pesticides5
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem

benefits and problems with pesticides6
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Problem: Imbalances in the Ecosystem

Creation of New Pests

benefits and problems with pesticides7
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Biomagnification of DDT

Problem: Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Biological Magnification

benefits and problems with pesticides8
Benefits and Problems with Pesticides

Problem: Mobility in the Environment

risks of pesticides to human health
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health

Short-term Effects of Pesticides

Handling of food with pesticide residue

risks of pesticides to human health1
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health

Short-term Effects of Pesticides

Case-in-Point: The Bhopal Disaster

  • 40 tons of methyl isocyanate gas released
  • 600,000 people exposed
  • 2,500 immediately killed
  • 2,500 more killed through time
  • 50,000-60,000 have serious health problems
risks of pesticides to human health2
Risks of Pesticides to Human Health

Long-term Effects of Pesticides

  • Potentially higher risk of cancer
  • Sterility
  • Miscarriage / birth defects
  • Potentially higher risk for Parkinson’s disease
alternatives to pesticides
Alternatives to Pesticides

Using Cultivation Methods to Control Pests

  • Interplant mixtures of plants
  • Strip cutting
  • Planting, fertilizing, and irrigating at proper time
  • Crop rotation
alternatives to pesticides1
Alternatives to Pesticides
  • Biological Controls

Using naturally occurring diseases, parasites, or predators to control a pest

  • Pheromones and Hormones

Use pheromones to attract insects to traps

Synthetic hormones induce abnormal development

  • Reproductive Controls

Sterile-male technique – inundate pest population with large numbers of sterile males

alternatives to pesticides2
Alternatives to Pesticides

Genetic Controls

Using Genetically Modified plants (GMOs)

Case-in-Point: Bt, Its Potential and Problems

Genetically modified corn to produce Bt toxin

Potential problem: may affect non-target species, such as monarch butterfly

Quarantine

alternatives to pesticides3
Alternatives to Pesticides

Integrated Pest Management

alternatives to pesticides4
Alternatives to Pesticides

IPM introduced

Integrated Pest Management

Rice Production in Indonesia

alternatives to pesticides5
Alternatives to Pesticides

Irradiating Foods

Predominantly used on meats

Kills many microorganisms

federal insecticide fungicide and rodenticide act fifra
FEDERAL INSECTICIDE, FUNGICIDE, AND RODENTICIDE ACT (FIFRA)
  • The primary focus of FIFRA was to provide federal control of pesticide distribution, sale, and use
  • EPA was given authority under FIFRA not only to study the consequences of pesticide usage but also to require users to register when purchasing pesticides
  • EPA is required to make instructional materials concerning integrated pest management (IPM) techniques available to individuals at their request
laws controlling pesticide use
Laws Controlling Pesticide Use

Estimates of Risk of Cancer from Pesticide Residue

Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)

Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)

Delaney Cause (1958)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)

laws controlling pesticide use1
Laws Controlling Pesticide Use

Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (1938)

Pesticide Chemicals Amendment (1954)

Delaney Cause (1958)

Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (1947)

Food Quality Protection Act (1996)

the manufacture and use of banned pesticides
The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides

Some US companies still make banned or seriously restricted pesticides and export the product.

This can potentially lead to the importation of food tainted with banned pesticides

the manufacture and use of banned pesticides1
The Manufacture and Use of Banned Pesticides

The Global Ban of Persistent Organic Pollutants

ipm is
IPM is:

A pest management philosophy that utilizes all suitable pest management techniques and methods to keep pest populations below economically injurious levels. Each pest management technique must be environmentally sound and compatible with producer objectives.

what is ipm
WHAT IS IPM?

IPM utilizes a combination of:

  • Preventive measures
  • Monitoring
  • Control techniques

IPM’s goal is to suppress pests by the least toxic measures

IPM does not exclude the use of chemical pesticides, but utilizes them sparingly and only as a last resort