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Gonneke W.J.M.Stevens; Wilma A.M.Vollebergh; Trees V.M.Pels PowerPoint Presentation
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Gonneke W.J.M.Stevens; Wilma A.M.Vollebergh; Trees V.M.Pels

Gonneke W.J.M.Stevens; Wilma A.M.Vollebergh; Trees V.M.Pels

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Gonneke W.J.M.Stevens; Wilma A.M.Vollebergh; Trees V.M.Pels

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  1. Predicting externalizing and internalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents in the Netherlands Gonneke W.J.M.Stevens; Wilma A.M.Vollebergh; Trees V.M.Pels Sco Psychiatry Psychiar Epidemiol(2005) 40: 571-579 Impact factor: 2.052 Date:99/10/14

  2. Outline • Introduction • Externalizing • Internalizing • Methods • Result • Discussion • Conclusion

  3. Introduction • This aim of the current study is to contribute to the knowledge in this field • Externalizing problems • Internalizing problems

  4. Introduction • Child factor • Internalizing • According to Zahn-Waxler et al. , the strongest risk factor for emotional Problems is gender: Female adolescents were found to be at least twice as likely as males to become anxious and depressed, a pattern that continues throughout adulthood • Externalizing • Associations between child variables and externalizing behavior are well established in literature

  5. Introduction • Family factor • Internalizing • Several processes in, and characteristics of, the family influence the development of emotional problems in adolescents • Externalizing • Parental behavior in interaction with the child is the family factor most proximal to the child’s everyday experience

  6. Introduction • School/peer factor • Internalizing • Although parents still occupy a central position in the lives of their children, relations with peers become increasingly important during adolescence • Externalizing • The child’s progress into adolescence is marked by increased involvement with peers. In this period, parental influence diminishes whereas peer influence increases

  7. Introduction • Migration factor • Internalizing • Moroccan adolescents may be faced with risk factors related to their (or their parents‘) migration • Externalizing • Variables specific for migration, like country of birth and fluency in the language used in the current country may influence the level of externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents

  8. Introduction • Three goals- Externalizing • First: Gain insight into the predictors of externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents living in the Netherlands in the age range of 11-18 years • Second: The gender specificity of the associations is examined • Third: Want to find out which factor is most strongly associated with externalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents

  9. Introduction • Three goals-Internalizing • First: Gain insight into the predictors of internalizing problems in Moroccan immigrant adolescents living in the Netherlands in the Netherlands • Second: Examine the gender specificity of the associations • Third: Examine the contribution of child, proximal family, parent, contextual family, global family, school/peer, and migration factors to the prediction of emotional problems with and without controlling for the other predictor sets

  10. Population Aged 4 through 8 At least one parent born in Morocco of two of the four largest cities in Netherlands Methods • Sample Mentally retarded Lived in Moroccan Excluded 37 Only one child per family Excluded 96 N=1260 April 2000 to July 2002 N=1127 Adolescents report Aged 11 through 18 N=376 Parent report N=415 For 73% N=819 • Permission for parents and adolescents Response rate 82% N=238 teacher report N=296 excluded 7

  11. Sample

  12. Methods • Instruments • Internalizing and externalizing behavior • Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) • Youth Self-Report (YSR) • Teacher’s Report Form (TRF) • Internalizing • Sum of scores on items in the Withdraws, Somatic Complaints, and Anxious/Depressed syndrome profiles • Externalizing • Sum of scores on the Delinquent and Aggressive behavior syndromes

  13. Methods • Instruments • Child factor • Gender • Age • Internalizing • Chronic health problems of the child were obtained from the parent

  14. Methods • Instruments • Proximal family factor • Affection • 0=highly disagree to 5=highly agree • Monitoring • 0=nothing to 3=everything • Support from father (α=0.86) • Support from mother (α=0.78) • Parent-child conflict (parent reportα=0.90) • Parent-child conflict (adolescent reportα=0.85) • 0=never to 4=very often

  15. Methods • Instruments • Parent factor • Somatic symptoms • Anxiety/Insomnia (α=0.90) • Social Dysfunction (α=0.77) • Severe Depression

  16. Methods • Instruments • Contextual family factor • Conflicts parents about parenting • Conflicts parents about other things • 0=never to 2=often • Positive communication parents • Destructive communication parents • Total number of life-events

  17. Methods • Instruments • Global family factor • Marital status • 0=married • 1=not married • Family education level • 0=no education at all to 4=high level of vocational training or university • Family employment level • 0=no job to 3=high job level • Number of children in the family

  18. Methods • Instruments • School/peer factor • Problems at school • Being bored • 0=never to 4=each day • Support from friends (α=0.86) • Deviant peers • 0=no; 1=yes(α=0.86) • Hanging out • 0=never to 4=each day

  19. Methods • Instruments • Migration factor • Country of birth adolescent • Muslim identification adolescent (α=0.76) • Perceived group discrimination adolescent • Muslim identification parent (α=0.59) • Perceived group discrimination parent • Fluency in Dutch parent (understanding) • Fluency in Dutch parent (speaking) • 0=not all to 3=very well

  20. Method • Statistical analysis • Cross-sectional study • Univariate analysis • Linear regression analysis • Cronbach's alpha

  21. Result • Externalizing problems

  22. Result • Internalizing problems

  23. Result • Externalizing problems

  24. Result • Internalizing problems

  25. Result • Internalizing problems

  26. Discussion • Study limitations • Unable to examine the causal directions of the associations • Unable to test whether the associations about externalizing or internalizing problems between Moroccan immigrant and Western populations • Not all important predictors have been taken into account • temperament for externalizing and internalizing

  27. Discussion • Study limitations • Sample might not be representative for the entire Moroccan immigrant population in Netherlands • Almost 50% of the Moroccans • Unable generalized to other migrant populations, as differences between migrant populations are numerous

  28. Conclusion • Study suggest that the child, school/peer, and proximal family factors are essential in models predicting the development of externalizing and internalizing problems turned out to be relatively small