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The Changing Paradigm

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  1. in The Changing Paradigm Forensic by Dr David Klatzow Science

  2. Justicia (aka “Lady Justice”) Janós Blaschke, The Goddess Themis, 1786

  3. Is this what we have become?

  4. “The surest way to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to holdin higher ESTEEMthose who think alikethan those who think differently.” • FriederichNietzche

  5. What is an Expert? See Davie v Edinburgh Magistrates, 1953 SC 34 of 40 quoted in Phipson on Evidence 13th Edition at 574

  6. What is an Expert? Also Maritime & General Insurance Company v Sky Unit Engineering 1989 (1) SA 867

  7. The Mayfield Print www.forejustice.org

  8. Agent Massey: • “I’ll preach fingerprints till I die. • They are infallible.” Chicago Tribune, 17 Oct 2004

  9. Bombing Out in Birmingham

  10. The Birmingham 6 and the Maguires • Frank Skuze • The Griess Test • Police Confessions?

  11. Bullet Identification • Bullet Lead ID • Striations Up to 25% of matching striations can be by chance alone

  12. Bullet Identification

  13. Bullet Identification

  14. Bullet Identification

  15. Strengthening Forensic Science

  16. Forensic Science is vulnerable to contextual and confirmational bias I Dror et al Forensic Science International, 2006, 156: 74,77

  17. Forensic Science is hindered by: • Multiple levels of educational requirements\ • Different professional cultures within the field • Reliance on apprentice-type training and a guild-like structure of each discipline Strengthening Forensic Science, pg 87

  18. Research by Dror et al has shown that: …experienced fingerprint examiners do not necessarily agree with their own past conclusions when the examination is presented later in a different context.

  19. Shoe Prints and Tyre Tracks… …are largely subjective.

  20. National Academies Report Ballistic Imaging: …observed that validity of fundamental assumptions of uniqueness and reproducibility has not yet been fully demonstrated.

  21. Hair • Gaudette : 1 in 4 500 • Local less features : 1 in 4 500

  22. Fires Many of the rules of thumb used to indicate accelerant are simply not true.

  23. The Statistics: MJ Saks & JJ Koehler

  24. What’s To Be Done? • Forensic science should not function in a police and prosecutorial environment • State and defence experts should meet to draft a joint expert minute prior to a trial • Slugging it out in court should be a thing of the past • There is a need for proper academic training of forensic scientists • A research culture needs to be fostered.