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in. The Changing Paradigm. Forensic. by Dr David Klatzow. Science. Justicia (aka “Lady Justice”). Janós Blaschke,  The Goddess Themis , 1786. Is this what we h ave become?. “The surest way

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the changing paradigm
in

The Changing Paradigm

Forensic

by Dr David Klatzow

Science

slide2
Justicia

(aka “Lady Justice”)

Janós Blaschke, The Goddess Themis, 1786

slide3
Is this what we

have become?

slide4
“The surest way

to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to holdin higher ESTEEMthose who think alikethan those who think differently.”

  • FriederichNietzche
slide5
What is an Expert?

See Davie v Edinburgh Magistrates, 1953

SC 34 of 40 quoted in Phipson on Evidence

13th Edition at 574

slide6
What is an Expert?

Also Maritime & General Insurance Company v

Sky Unit Engineering

1989 (1) SA 867

slide7
The Mayfield Print

www.forejustice.org

slide8
Agent Massey:
  • “I’ll preach fingerprints till I die.
  • They are infallible.”

Chicago Tribune, 17 Oct 2004

slide10
The Birmingham 6

and the Maguires

  • Frank Skuze
  • The Griess Test
  • Police Confessions?
slide11
Bullet Identification
  • Bullet Lead ID
  • Striations

Up to 25% of matching striations

can be by chance alone

slide15
Strengthening

Forensic Science

slide16
Forensic Science

is vulnerable to

contextual and

confirmational bias

I Dror et al Forensic Science International,

2006, 156: 74,77

slide17
Forensic Science is hindered by:
  • Multiple levels of educational requirements\
  • Different professional cultures within the field
  • Reliance on apprentice-type training and a guild-like structure of each discipline

Strengthening Forensic Science, pg 87

slide18
Research by Dror

et al has shown that:

…experienced fingerprint examiners

do not necessarily agree with their

own past conclusions when the

examination is presented later in a

different context.

slide19
Shoe Prints and

Tyre Tracks…

…are largely subjective.

slide20
National Academies Report Ballistic Imaging:

…observed that validity of fundamental assumptions of uniqueness and reproducibility has not yet been fully demonstrated.

slide21
Hair
  • Gaudette : 1 in 4 500
  • Local less features : 1 in 4 500
slide22
Fires

Many of the rules of thumb used to indicate

accelerant are simply not true.

slide23
The Statistics:

MJ Saks & JJ Koehler

slide24
What’s To Be Done?
  • Forensic science should not function in a police and prosecutorial environment
  • State and defence experts should meet to draft a joint expert minute prior to a trial
  • Slugging it out in court should be a thing of the past
  • There is a need for proper academic training of forensic scientists
  • A research culture needs to be fostered.
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