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The Body’s Transport System. The Cardiorespiratory system. The Cardiovascular System. Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood. . The Cardiovascular System. The cardiovascular system carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells.

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the cardiovascular system
The Cardiovascular System

Consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood.

the cardiovascular system1
The Cardiovascular System

The cardiovascular system carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells.

Blood contains cells that fight disease.

delivering needed materials
Delivering Needed Materials

Blood carries oxygen from your lungs to your other body cells.

Blood also transports glucose cells use to produce energy.

removing waste products
Removing Waste Products

The cardiovascular system removes wastes from cells.

The waste product of carbon dioxide is passed from cells into the blood and carried to the lungs where it is exhaled.

fighting disease
Fighting Disease

The cardiovascular system also transports cells that attack disease-causing microorganisms.

the heart
The Heart
  • The heart is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood throughout the blood vessels of the body.
  • In a year, the heart pumps enough blood to fill more than 30 competition size swimming pools.
your heart
Your Heart

It is about the size of your fist.

The heart lies beneath the sternum and inside the rib cage.

It is made of cardiac muscle, which contracts over and over again without getting tired.

the heart s structure
The Heart’s Structure
  • Has a right and left side.
  • Separated by a wall of tissue called the septum.
  • Each side has two compartments or chambers.
the heart atria
The Heart Atria
  • Each of two upper chamber of the heart are called atrium.
  • The pacemaker is located in the right atrium.
  • The pacemaker is a group of heart cells that send out a signal for the heart to beat.
the ventricles of the heart
The Ventricles of the Heart
  • Each lower chamber, called a ventricle, pumps blood out of the heart.
  • The atria are separated from the ventricles by valves.
  • A valve is a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backwards.
patterns of blood flow
Patterns of Blood Flow
  • Flow of blood is like a figure 8
  • Two loops cross at the heart
  • The first loop travels from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart
  • The blood is oxygen-poor therefore it is dark red.
going to the lungs
Going to the Lungs
  • Large vessels branch into smaller ones
  • Capillaries are the site of gas exchange
  • Oxygen moves from the lungs into the capillaries
  • Carbon Dioxide moves from the capillaries to the lungs to be exhaled
to the body and back
To the Body and Back

Left atrium fills with blood from the lungs

Continues into left ventricle

Blood is then pumped into the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

Blood then flows to different parts of your body.

back to the heart
Back to the heart

Blood vessels are in close contact with body cells

Oxygen moves out of the blood and into body cells

Carbon Dioxide passes from the body cells into the blood and back to the right atrium of the heart.

types of blood vessels
Types of Blood Vessels

Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.

artery structure
Artery Structure

Have very thick wall structure

Can withstand enormous pressure of pumped blood

Coronary arteries branch off the aorta and carry blood to the heart

regulating blood flow
Regulating Blood Flow

The layer of muscle in the artery adjusts the amount of blood sent to the different organs.

veins
Veins
  • Veins are blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
  • The walls are much thinner than arteries.
  • Contraction of skeletal muscles help push the blood along
  • Valves prevent backflow
  • Breathing exerts squeezing pressure against veins forcing blood towards heart
capillaries
Capillaries

From the arteries, blood flows into tiny, narrow vessels called capillaries. Substances are exchanged between the blood and body cells.

Capillaries are only one cell thick

pulse
Pulse
  • Your pulse is caused by the expansion and relaxation of the artery wall
  • The heart’s ventricles contract and send out a spurt of blood
  • This spurt causes the artery to expand
  • The artery walls relax after the spurt has passed on
blood pressure
Blood Pressure

Blood pressure travelling through blood vessels exerts a force against the walls of the blood vessels. This is called blood pressure.

Blood pressure decreases as blood moves away from the heart

measuring blood pressure
Measuring Blood Pressure

Blood pressure is measured with an instrument called a sphygmomanometer

Blood is expressed in mmHg

First # is when ventricles contract

Second # is when ventricles relax

the respiratory system
The Respiratory System

The Respiratory System removes oxygen from the outside environment into the body.

Carbon Dioxide and water are removed as waste products from the body.

oxygen
Oxygen
  • The process in which oxygen and glucose undergo a complex series of chemical reactions inside cells is called respiration.
  • Your cells cannot burn enough glucose without oxygen to keep you alive
  • Breathing is movement of air into and out of the
the path of air
The Path of Air

As air travels from the outside to the lungs, it passes through the nose, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.

the nose
The Nose

Air enters here into the nasal cavities

Mucus produced here warms the air and keeps lining from drying out

Cilia sweep mucus into the throat, where it is swallowed

the pharynx
The Pharynx

Air enters the pharynx or throat.

Both the nose and the mouth connect to the pharynx

the trachea
The Trachea
  • From the pharynx, air moves into the trachea, or windpipe
  • Composed of a series of cartilage rings
  • Lined with cilia and mucus, help sweeping mucus towards the pharynx
  • Epiglottis seals off trachea when swallowing to prevent choking
the bronchi and lungs
The Bronchi and Lungs

Air moves from the trachea to the bronchi in the lungs

Bronchi are passages that direct air into the lungs

The lungs are the main organs of the respiratory system

bronchioles
Bronchioles

Each bronchus divides into smaller and smaller tubes called bronchioles

They resemble branches of a tree

alveoli
Alveoli

Alveoli are tiny sacs of lung tissue at the end of the bronchioles.

These are specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood.

gas exchange
Gas Exchange
  • Because the walls of both the alveoli and the capillaries are very thin, gases can easily diffuse through them.
  • Oxygen passes thru the alveolus then thru the capillary into the blood.
  • Carbon Dioxide passes from the blood, to the capillary and into the alveoli.
  • This is called gas exchange.
gas exchange and pulmonary circulation
Gas Exchange and Pulmonary Circulation
  • Pulmonary circulation carries blood from the heart to the lungs and back again
  • Carbon Dioxide moves from the blood into the alveoli and out the lungs
  • The blood that returns to the heart is rich in oxygen
gas exchange1
Gas Exchange

During gas exchange, oxygen moves from alveoli into the blood and carbon dioxide moves from the blood into the alveoli

surface area and gas exchange
Surface area and Gas exchange
  • Your lungs can absorb a large amount of oxygen because of the large surface area of the alveoli.
  • 300 alveoli million in adult lungs
  • Able to supply needed oxygen during strenuous athletic performances
how you breathe
How You breathe!!
  • Controlled by muscles
  • Lungs surrounded by intercostal muscles
  • Diaphram is the large, dome-shaped muscle at the base of the lungs that contracts and relaxes during breathing
breathing in
Breathing in!!

When you inhale, the rib muscles contract, lifting the chest wall up and outward. The diaphragm contracts and moves downward.

breathing out exhaling
Breathing out/Exhaling

Rib muscles and diphragm relax

Size of chest cavity is reduced

Air is squeezed out of lungs