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Unit 13: Abnormal Psychology. AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier 2010 – 2011. Key Ideas. Defining abnormal behavior Causes of abnormal behavior Anxiety disorders Somatoform disorders Dissociative disorders Mood disorders Schizophrenia Personality disorders Mental health practitioners

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unit 13 abnormal psychology

Unit 13: Abnormal Psychology

AP Psychology

Ms. Desgrosellier

2010 – 2011

key ideas
Key Ideas
  • Defining abnormal behavior
  • Causes of abnormal behavior
  • Anxiety disorders
  • Somatoform disorders
  • Dissociative disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Schizophrenia
  • Personality disorders
  • Mental health practitioners
  • History of therapy
  • Insight therapies – psychoanalytic, psychodynamic, humanistic
  • Behavioral approaches
  • Cognitive-behavioral approaches
  • Biological treatments
  • Modes of therapy
  • Community and preventive approaches
defining abnormal behavior
Defining Abnormal Behavior
  • Abnormal behavior is:
    • Statistically rare
    • Violates cultural norms
    • Personally interferes with day-to-day living
    • Legally may cause a person to be unable to know right from wrong (insanity).
defining abnormal behavior1
Defining Abnormal Behavior
  • Currently diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM IV-TR).
    • Manual used by mental health professionals for classifying psychological disorders.
    • Published by the American Psychological Association (APA).
    • New edition DSM V is expected to be published in 2012.
causes of abnormal behavior
Causes of Abnormal Behavior
  • Unresolved internal conflict in the unconscious mind.
    • Psychoanalytic
  • Maladaptive behaviors learned from inappropriate rewards and punishments.
    • Behavioral
causes of abnormal behavior1
Causes of Abnormal Behavior
  • Conditions of worth imposed by society, which cause lowered self-concept.
    • Humanistic
  • Irrational and faulty thinking.
    • Cognitive
causes of abnormal behavior2
Causes of Abnormal Behavior
  • Neurochemicalor hormonal imbalances; abnormal brain structures or genetics.
    • Biological
anxiety
Anxiety
  • Examples of disorders:
    • panic disorder
    • generalized anxiety disorder
    • phobias
    • obsessive-compulsive disorder
    • post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
anxiety1
Anxiety
  • Symptoms:
  • Panic attack:
    • pain & tightness of muscles in chest or neck
    • feeling light-headed or faint
    • profuse sweating
    • clammy hands
somatoform
Somatoform
  • Examples of disorders:
    • somatization disorder
    • conversion disorder
    • hypochondriasis
somatoform1
Somatoform
  • Symptoms:
    • Deal with the body and have no realistic physical cause
dissociative
Dissociative
  • Examples of disorders:
    • dissociative amnesia
    • dissociative fugue
    • dissociative identity disorder (formally multiple personality disorder)
dissociative1
Dissociative
  • Symptoms:
    • sudden loss of memory (amnesia)
    • change in identity
    • Freudian explanation: repression for hurtful situations too painful for the individual to deal with.
slide15
Mood
  • Examples of disorders:
    • Unipolar (depressive) disorder
    • bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder
slide16
Mood
  • Symptoms:
    • Primary disturbance in affect or mood that colors the individual’s entire emotional state.
    • depression symptoms (sadness, lack of energy/motivation, etc.)
    • manic symptoms (feeling indestructible, high energy, etc.)
schizophrenia
Schizophrenia
  • Examples of disorders:
  • Four major types:
    • disorganized
    • catatonic
    • paranoid
    • undifferentiated
schizophrenia1
Schizophrenia
  • Symptoms:
    • Psychosis: lack of touch with reality evidenced by abnormal thinking, emotion, movement, socialization, and/or perception.
schizophrenia2
Schizophrenia
  • Symptoms:
    • Delusions: erroneous beliefs that are maintained even when compelling evidence to the contrary is presented.
    • Hallucinations: false sensory perceptions, e.g. seeing, hearing, or otherwise perceiving something that is not present.
schizophrenia3
Schizophrenia
  • Schizophrenic artist Louis Wain
personality
Personality
  • Examples of disorders:
  • Three clusters:
    • Odd/Eccentric: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal
    • Problematic: histrionic, narcissistic, boderline, antisocial
    • Chronic fearfulness/avoidant: avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive
personality1
Personality
  • Symptoms:
    • Persistent patterns of maladaptive and inflexible traits in personality
developmental
Developmental
  • Examples of disorders:
    • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    • infantile autism
    • anorexia nervosa
    • bulimia nervosa
developmental1
Developmental
  • Symptoms:
    • Disturbances in learning, language, and motor or social skills showing up in infancy, childhood, or adolescence.
mental health practitioners
Mental Health Practitioners
  • Psychiatrists: medical doctors (M.D.) who can prescribe medication and perform surgery.
  • Clinical psychologists: have a doctoral degree (Ph.D. or Psy.D.); use different therapeutic approaches depending on training and diagnosis.
    • Generally CANNOT prescribe medication.
mental health practitioners1
Mental Health Practitioners
  • Counseling psychologists: have a Ph.D., Ed.D., or M.A. in counseling; tend to deal with less severe mental health problems.
  • Psychoanalysts: may or may not be psychiatrists, but follow the teaching of Freud and practice psychoanalysis or other psychodynamic therapies.
mental health practitioners2
Mental Health Practitioners
  • Clinical or psychiatric social workers: have masters degree in social work (M.S.W.).
therapies
Therapies
  • Approach
  • Cause – see first table
  • Goal of treatment
  • Key terms
psychoanalytic
Psychoanalytic
  • Goal:
  • Help patients gain insight into their unconscious conflicts.
  • Does not offer a cure.
psychoanalytic1
Psychoanalytic
  • Key Terms:
  • Psychoanalysis
  • Free Association: Just allowing patients to talk about random things, then the psychoanalyst interprets.
psychoanalytic2
Psychoanalytic
  • Key Terms:
  • Dream interpretation
  • Transference: putting feelings and emotions on the therapist.
  • Catharsis: acting out aggression and anger to release it.
behavioral
Behavioral
  • Goal:
  • Unlearn maladaptive behavior and replace it with more adaptive behavior.
behavioral1
Behavioral
  • Key Terms:
  • Systematic Desensitization: client is trained to relax to increasingly fearful stimuli.
  • Flooding: exposing client to phobias for extended periods of time without escape.
  • Modeling
behavioral2
Behavioral
  • Key Terms:
  • Implosive: Flooding, but with imagination, not real stimuli.
  • Aversive: Classical conditioning technique, creating an association between unwanted behavior and negative stimuli (e.g. nausea)
humanistic
Humanistic
  • Goal:
  • To reduce the discrepancy between the ideal and real self.
humanistic1
Humanistic
  • Key Terms:
  • Client-centered therapy: the client rather than the therapist directs the treatment process.
  • Existential Therapy: focus on helping clients find purpose and meaning in their lives, and emphasize individual freedom and responsibility.
  • Unconditional positive regard
cognitive
Cognitive
  • Goal:
  • Cognitive restructuring by:
    • changing the thoughts and replacing irrational with more rational perceptions
    • Changing negative thinking to more positive ideas.
cognitive1
Cognitive
  • Key Terms:
  • Rational emotive therapy: based on confronting irrational thoughts.
    • Change in irrational thinking will lead to a change in irrational behavior.
  • Cognitive triad: Looks at what people think about their Self, their World, and their Future.
biological
Biological
  • Goal:
  • Psychoactive drugs attempt to restore balance:
    • antianxiety
    • antidepressant
    • antipsychotic
  • Electroconvulsive shock therapy (ONLY effective for severe depression) 
  • Psychosurgery (e.g. cutting the corpus callosum to relieve seizures).
biological1
Biological
  • Key Terms:
  • Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): using magnets to stimulate parts of the brain.
  • ECT: shock therapy
biological2
Biological
  • Key Terms:
  • Psychosurgery: lesioning or removing parts of the brain.
  • Corpus Callosum
  • Transection: cutting sensory nerves
  • Prefrontal Lobotomy: formally a treatment for psychopaths, separates the frontal lobe from the rest of the brain.