LearningAn Invitation to PsychologySecond EditionCarole WadeCarole Tavris Porterville College Psychology 101 Online Norris Edwards
Learning Objectives: • By the end of this unit you should be able to: • Identify the two types of conditioning shown by behaviorist to explain human behavior. • Compare and contract the principles of operant and classical conditioning. • Describe shaping, extinction, and stimulus generalization and stimulus discrimination in operant conditioning. • Explain social-cognitive learning theory.
Thoughts About Learning • I am not trying to change people. All I want to do is change the world in which they live. • B. F. Skinner • Behavioral Psychology is the science of pulling habits out of rats. • Douglas Busch • Children have never been very good at listening to their elders, but they have never failed to imitate them. • James Baldwin
Defining Learning • Learning refers to the relatively permanent change in behavior (or potential for behavior) brought about by experience, provided that the change cannot be explained on the basis of a simpler cause (e.g., native response tendencies, maturation, or temporary states such as fatigue, drugs, etc.).
Conditioning • Conditioning involves forming associations between environmental stimuli and responses: • Two types of conditioning are: • Classical Conditioning • Operant Conditioning • Unlike other theories Behaviorism omits the mental processes from explanation of human behavior.
New Reflexes from Old • Pavlov was the first to describe and document the form of learning we now call classical conditioning. • Learning with classical conditioning occurs when a neutral stimulus is regularly paired with an Unconditioned Stimulus(US) than elicits a conditioned response (CR) that is similar to the original, unlearned one.
Classical Conditioning Defined • Classical Conditioning is the process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulus that already elicits a similar or related response
Pavlov’s Apparatus • Harness and fistula (mouth tube) help keep dog in a consistent position and gather uncontaminated saliva samples • They do not cause the dog discomfort
Classical Conditioning Fig 6.2
Higher-Order Conditioning • With repeated pairing, a neutral stimulus can be linked with a CS • This stimulus becomes a CS
Principles of Classical ConditioningExtinction • If after, conditioning, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly present without the unconditioned stimulus the conditioned response will eventually disappear. • Extinction the weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning. It occurs when the conditioning stimulus is not longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Extinction Curve Fig 6.4
Principles of Classical ConditioningHigher Order Conditioning • Higher Order Conditioning • In classical conditioning, is a procedure in which a neutral stimulus can become a conditioned stimulus by being paired with an already established conditioned stimulus.
Principles of Classical ConditioningStimulus Generalization • Stimulus Generalization • After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the Conditioned Stimulus (CS) elicits the Condition Response (CR)
Stimulus GeneralizationEthology • Stimulus Generalization occurs normally in nature as part of many survival schemes. When we see birds flying in a flock the intent is to deceive predators into believing that they are a much larger creature.
Principles of Classical ConditioningStimulus Discrimination • Stimulus Discrimination • The tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the Conditioned Stimulus fails to evoke the Conditioned Response.
What is Actually Learned in Classical Conditioning • For effective conditioning to occur, it is not enough to pair the stimuli • The neutral stimulus must reliably signal the unconditioned one. • Because real life is anything but consistent, conditioning is less certain in everyday life.
Classical-conditioning terms can be hard to learn, so be sure to take this quiz before going on. • Name the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in this situations. • Five-year-old Samantha is watching a storm from her window A huge bolt of lightning is followed by a tremendous thunderclap, and Samantha jumps at the noise. This happens several more times. There is a brief lull and then another lightning bolt. Samantha jumps in response to the bolt. • US ___________ • UR ___________ • CS ___________ • CR ___________
Classical-conditioning terms can be hard to learn, so be sure to take this quiz before going on. • Name the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in this situations. • Gregory’s mouth waters whenever he eats anything with lemon in it. One day, while reading an ad that show a big glass of lemonade, Gregory notices his mouth watering. • US ___________ • UR ___________ • CS ___________ • CR ___________
Classical-conditioning terms can be hard to learn, so be sure to take this quiz before going on. • Name the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in this situations. • Five-year-old Samantha is watching a storm from her window A huge bolt of lightning is followed by a tremendous thunderclap, and Samantha jumps at the noise. This happens several more times. There is a brief lull and then another lightning bolt. Samantha jumps in response to the bolt. • US The Thunderclap • UR Jumping to the noise • CS The lightning • CR Jumping to the lightning
Classical-conditioning terms can be hard to learn, so be sure to take this quiz before going on. • Name the unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response in this situations. • Gregory’s mouth waters whenever he eats anything with lemon in it. One day, while reading an ad that show a big glass of lemonade, Gregory notices his mouth watering. • US Taste of Lemon • UR Salivation to Lemon • CS Picture of Lemonade • CR Salivation to picture
Classical Conditioning in the Real WorldJohn Watson • John Watson Was One of the Pioneers and the First to Recognize the Implications of Pavlovian Theory in Real Life. • Watson Founded the American Behaviorism and Promoted Pavlovian Ideas Particularly in the Areas of Advertisement.
Watson’s Extreme Environmentalism • “Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own special world to bring them up in, and I’ll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to be any type of specialist I might select - doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief, and yes, beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors.” John Broadus Watson, 1928
Learning to Like • Madison Avenue has made excellent use of the principles classical conditioning. • For example, Gorn (1982) discusses an experiment where two groups of student were shown one or two slides of a beige or blue pen. The blue pen was associated with either a popular modern song while the beige pen was paired with more traditional India music. • When asked to express their preference, more than 3/4s of the student selected the blue pen. Why?
Learning to Fear • Just as positive association can be established using classical conditioning, negative associations can also be formed. • Watson and Rosalie Rayner (1920) deliberately establishing a rat phobia in an 11 year-old boy named Albert to demonstrate how we learn to fear.
Operant Conditioning • G. Stanley Hall (1899) was conducting a study of anger, and asked a number of people to describe angry episodes they had experienced or observed. One subject describe observing an little girl crying uncontrollably and in midpoint stopping to inquiry if her daddy was in. • Hall concluded that the little girl had learned from prior experience that such outburst of sobbing would bring her attention.
Operant Conditioning • In short the girl behavior followed one of the most basic law of learning: • Behavior becomes more likely or less likely depending on its consequences. • Operant or Instrumental Conditioning ~ The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences.
The Birth of Radical Behaviorism • Edward Thorndike (1998) As a doctoral candidate Thorndike conducted a classic experiment called the “puzzle box”. He place a cat in a specially designed box and allowed in to learn the correct sequence of behavior to escape from the box and retrieve a food reward. • The cat at first would randomly perform a number of behaviors.
Thorndikes’ Puzzle Box Fig 6.8
The Consequences of Behavior • From Skinner’s perspective a response (“operant”) can result from one of the following consequences: • A Neutral Consequence • Reinforcement • Punishment
The Consequences of Behavior • Neutral Consequences • A neutral consequence does not alter the response. It neither increases nor decreases the probability that the behavior will recur.
The Consequences of BehaviorReinforcement Reinforcement~ Strengthens the response or makes it more likely to recur. When you dog begs for food at the table, and you give him/her a scrap. The result in the begging will increase.
The Consequences of BehaviorPunishment Punishment~ Weakens the response or makes it less likely to recur. Any Aversive (unpleasant) stimulus or event may be a punisher. If your dog begs for food from the table and you refuse, his/her is not likely to continue to beg in the Future.
Primary and Secondary Reinforcers • Reinforcers can be categorized into two groups: • Primary Reinforcers • Any stimulus or event that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying some physiological need; such as food, sleep, or sex. • Secondary Reinforcers • A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other primary Reinforcers. Such as money, grades, etc.
Primary and Secondary Punishers • Punishers can be categorized into two groups: • Primary Punisher • A stimulus that in inherently punishing; an example is electric shock. Secondary Punishers • A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers.
Positive Reinforcement Good Grades Behavior: Studying Result: Studying Increases Negative Reinforcement: Poor Grades
Positive Punishment Ridicule by Friends Behavior: Studying Result: Studying Decreases Negative Punishment: Loss of Time with Friends
Aversive Reinforcer Punishment Present Positive Reinforcement Putting It All Together Extinction Remove Negative Reinforcement
Principles of Operant Conditioning • Early in his career Skinner (1938) used a the Skinner Box to demonstrate the principles of operant conditioning. • A rat that had previous learned dot eat from the food-releasing device was placed in the box • Because there was not food present in the box, began to engage in typical rat-;like behaviors. (sniffing, random touching, scurrying etc.)
Stimulus Generalization and Discrimination • Stimulus Generalization • The tendency for a response that has been reinforced (or punished) in the presence of one stimulus to occur (or be suppressed) in the presence of other similar stimuli. • Stimulus Discrimination • The tendency,of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension.
Discriminative Stimulus • Stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequences One Example of a Discriminative Stimuli Would Be The Signs on the Men’s and Women’s Restrooms. They Signal If It Is Appropriate to Enter the Restroom, and Can Also Signal If Your Conduct Will Be Rewarded or Punished Depend on Your Gender.
Stimulus Generalization • Stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus are more likely to trigger a response • Lady Bay and Bud Dark were trained with a 2.5” circle • Results for different circles are shown here
Learning and Schedule • Continuous Reinforcement • Reinforcement Schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced after every occurrence of the target behavior. • As a rule when teaching or learning a new behavior a continuous reinforcement schedule works best.
Schedules of Reinforcement • Simple reinforcement schedules produce characteristic response patterns • Steeper lines mean higher response rates • Ratio schedules produce higher response rates than interval schedules
Schedules of Reinforcement Fig 6.9
Learning and Schedule • Intermittent (Partial) Schedule of Reinforcement. • A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced. • In general, an intermittent schedule or reinforcement is better for maintaining a learned behavior and avoiding extinction.