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Diversity Unit Introduction. SBI 3UO. HIERARCHIAL SPECIES CLASSIFICATION . Increasing level of specificity RANK : level in the hierarchy TAXON : names of the levels TAXONOMY : the use of taxons to classify species. HIERARCHIAL SPECIES CLASSIFICATION. Domains Kingdoms Phyla Classes

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hierarchial species classification
HIERARCHIAL SPECIES CLASSIFICATION

Increasing level of specificity

RANK: level in the hierarchy

TAXON: names of the levels

TAXONOMY: the use of taxons to classify species

hierarchial species classification1
HIERARCHIAL SPECIES CLASSIFICATION

Domains

Kingdoms

Phyla

Classes

Orders

Families

Genera

Species

classification of lions panthera leo
Classification of Lions Panthera leo

Kingdom: Animalia (animals)

Phylum: Chordata (vertebrate animals)

Class: Mammalia (mammals)

Order: Carnivora (meat eaters)

Family: Felidae (ll cats)

Genus: Panthera (great cats)

Species: leo (lions)

species
Species
  • represent one type of organism, such as dog, tiger shark, Ameoba proteus (the common amoeba), Homo sapiens (us), or Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)
  • Species are identified by two names (binomial nomenclature)
  • The first name is the genus (capitalized), the second is the species
  • Species names are underlined if written by hand or in italics if typed
identifying species
IDENTIFYING SPECIES
  • Three concepts for ways to define a species
  • No consensus on definition
  • 1) Morphological
  • 2) Biological
  • 3) Phylogenetic
1 morphological
1) MORPHOLOGICAL:
  • Physical descriptions and measurements
    • ADVANTAGE: simple
    • DISADVANTAGE: difficult to distinguish bw variations within a species and bw species
2 biological
2) BIOLOGICAL
  • Ability to produce fertile offspring
    • ADVANTAGE: Testable for existing species
    • DISADVANTAGE: Not testable for extinct or asexual species
3 phylogenetic
3) PHYLOGENETIC:
  • Evolutionary relationship, DNA
    • ADVANTAGE: living or extinct species
    • DISADVANTAGE: not all evolutionary histories are known
two types of cells
TWO TYPES OF CELLS
  • All living things are made of cells:
  • TWO TYPES:

1) Prokaryotic cells (“lacks nucleus”, ancient)

    • Ex: Bacterial cells

2) Eukaryotic cells (“true nucleus”, more advanced)

    • Ex: Animal cells and plant cells
prokaryotic cells
PROKARYOTIC CELLS

First type of cell on Earth!

NO nucleus (DNA is floating around)

NO mitochondria

NO chloroplast (or any membrane-bound organelle)

Smaller in size

Small piece of DNA (1 chromo)

ALL bacterial cells are prokaryotic

domains
DOMAINS

1) Archaea (prokaryotic cells)

2) Bacteria (prokaryotic cells)

3) Eukarya(eukaryotic cells)

the 6 kingdoms
The 6 Kingdoms

1. Plants

2. Animals

3. Protists

4. Fungi

5. Eubacteria

6. Archaebacteria

how are organisms organised into kingdoms
How are organisms organised into kingdoms?
  • Cell type, complex or simple
  • Their ability to make food
  • The number of cells in their body
archaebacteria
Archaebacteria
  • discovered in 1983 in a spot deep in the Pacific Ocean where hot gases and molten rock boiled into the ocean from the Earth’s interior
  • they are unicellular(one cell)organisms
  • found in extreme environments such as very high temperatures, no oxygen, or in highly acidic environments

Pyrococcus CH1,discovered thriving on a mid-Atlantic ridge within a temperature range of 80 to 105°C an

eubacteria
Eubacteria
  • complex and single celled
  • most common bacteria
  • are classified in their own kingdom because their chemical makeup is different

Streptococcus pyogenes (Strep throat is a common disease in children )

Staphylococcus aureus

(found in the nose)

fungi
Fungi
  • Mushrooms, mold and mildew
  • Most fungi are multicellular andconsist of many complex cells
protista
Protista
  • slime molds and algae
  • include all microscopic organisms that are not bacteria, notanimals, not plants and notfungi
  • most are unicellular
  • they are not classified in the Archaebacteria or Eubacteria kingdom because, unlike bacteria, protists are complex cells
plantae
Plantae
  • Plants are multicellular
  • most don't move, although gametes of some plants move using cilia or flagella
  • organelles including nucleus, chloroplasts are present, and cell walls are present
  • nutrients are acquired by photosynthesis they are autotrophs
animalia
Animalia
  • Animals are multicellular
  • they move with the aid of cilia, flagella, or muscular organs based on contractile proteins.
  • they have organelles including a nucleus, but no chloroplasts or cell walls.
  • animals acquire nutrients by ingestion  they are heterotrophs
cyber field trip student activity taxonomic fun classifying the life around us
Cyber Field Trip Student ActivityTaxonomic Fun: Classifying the Life Around Us:

http://www.pbs.org/safarchive/5_cool/galapagos/g42_tax.html

galapagos islands case study
Galapagos Islands Case Study
  • http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7881175.stm
review
REVIEW
  • All living things are made of cells
    • Prok (no memb) and Euk
  • 3 Domains:
    • 1) Archaea (prok): extremophiles, primitive
    • 2) Bacteria(prok): evolved more recently
    • 3) Eukarya (euk): more recent organisms
  • Bacteria are classified by shape and structure:
    • Structure: Gram +/-
    • Shape: Bacillus, coccus, spirilla, cilia, flagella, pseudopods
  • 6 Kingdoms:
    • Archaea/Bacteria/Protista/Fungi/Plantae/Animalia
homework
Homework
  • Read pgs. 10-30, make notes, anwer questions #1-8, pg. 16, #1-8, pg. 23, and #1-8, pg. 30
  • Page 25-26: See Figure 1.14 & 1.15
  • Page 29: Copy Table 1.5 (auto/heterotrophs)