The Rise of Europe 500 – 1450 A.D.
The Early Middle Ages Geography of Western Europe • In 500 A.D., northern Europe was sparsely populated • Dense forests, rich earth, mineral resources, large rivers,
Characteristics of the Middle Ages • Population decreased • Trade almost ended • Learning stopped • No written laws • “Dark Ages” – Many warring invasions • Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 A.D. • High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 • Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500
The Germanic Kingdoms • The tribes that defeated the Roman Empire were culturally very different • They lived in small communities & elected kings • B/w 400 & 700 AD, there were many small kingdoms • The strongest to emerge were the Franks. • Clovis – king • Converted to Christianity
Europe and the Muslim World • Islam , a new force, swept through the Middle East & Med • Built a huge empire & captured Spain & Sicily • Christians feared the Muslims • The Franks under Charles Martel stopped the takeover of France at the Battle of Tours • Europeans did learn about science & math from the Muslims
The Age of Charlemagne • Around 800, a Frankish king, Charles the Great built a large empire • The pope (Leo III) crowned Ch.. Emperor of the Romans • He wanted his capital to be like Rome & encouraged Latin & set up schools • He helped the Church spread Christianity • He appointed powerful nobles & sent out officials called missidominici Charlemagne: 742 to 814
After Charlemagne • His empire fell apart after he died. • His grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into 3 regions. • Legacy: He blended Germanic, Roman, and Christian ideas. • New invasions… • More Muslims • Magyars (Hungary) • Vikings in the 900s Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:Treaty of Verdun, 843
Feudalism and the Manor Economy The Emergence of Feudalism • Kings were not strong enough to stop invasions by outsiders • People needed protection so a new system, feudalism was developed. • Powerful lords owned large pieces of land • The land was divided into estates called fiefs.
Fiefs were given to less powerful lords, called vassals. • Vassals promised loyalty & service to his lord • The lord promised to protect his vassal • Often vassals held fiefs from more than one lord. • They then had to choose a liege lord – 1st loyalty
Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.
The World of Nobles • Warfare was a way of life & nobles battled constantly for power. • Knights were trained very strictly from the age of 7. • When feudal warfare decreased in the 1100s, tournaments replaced… • Castles had to withstand attack (stored food & water) Sleeping Beauty Castle Kassel, Germany
Noblewomen & Chivalry • Played an active role in warrior society • The “lady of the manor” had many duties as the men were gone to war • Some were involved in politics – Eleanor of Aquitane became queen in both France & England • In the later Mid Ages, knights adopted a code of conduct called chivalry • They were brave, loyal, & truthful. • Women were to be protected & cherished.
Peasants & Manor Life • Medieval economy was based on the manor • Most people were serfs who farmed the land. • They were not slaves, but were not allowed to leave w/out permission. • They received the lord’s protection and could even have several acres for themselves. • Most peasants were illiterate and never left the manor. • Simple diet of black bread w/ vegetables and families lived in one-room huts • Life was harsh & few lived past the age of 35.
The Medieval Church The Church and Medieval Life • After the fall of Rome, the Church split into eastern & western churches. • Western – Roman Catholic church, headed by the pope • In 597, Pope Gregory I sent Augustine to convert the Anglo-Saxons
Later missionaries spread Chr. throughout Europe • In manor villages, the priest was the peoples’ contact w/ the church. • Celebrated mass and administered the sacraments…leading to salvation.. • Christian rituals were part of the fabric of everyday life.
They took pride in church buildings. • Holy men buried there • Christians paid a tithe • Women were viewed as “daughters of Eve,” but the ideal woman was as pure as Mary .
Monks and Nuns • Some Christians spent their lives serving God. • About 530 B.C., a monk named Benedict organized the first monastery. (Convent) • They took 3 vows: • Obedience to the abbot • Poverty • Chastity • Cared for the sick and poor, and set up schools • Some were missionaries …life of service
Abbess Hildegard – Composed music & wrote books Women’s roles were limited and there were many restrictions on nuns, such as no preaching.
The Power of the Church Grows • Medieval popes eventually claimed papal supremacy, or authority over secular rulers also. • The Pope controlled vast lands. • Christians believed that all people were sinners & doomed to eternal suffering, so the church had the power of sacraments over people. • The church developed its own canon law & courts.
Those who disobeyed Church law could face excommunication. • A noble who disobeyed could face the interdict, excluding a whole region. • The church tried to end feudal warfare.
Reform Movements The success of the Church brought problems. • As wealth & power grew, discipline weakened. • Some clergy lived in luxury, and some ignored their vows. • Many called for reforms… Medieval monk, bishop, & priest
Jews in Europe • Jewish communities existed across Europe. • Muslim Spain became a center of Jewish culture. (Sephardic) • Many rulers in N. Europe valued and protected… • In the late 1000s, Christian persecution of Jews began & worsened in bad economic times. • Many Jews then migrated to E. Europe and thrived. Jewish Prince in Moslem Spain: Selected Poems of Samuel ibn Nagrela, Chaiya's Sephardic World,
Economic Expansion & Change An Agricultural Revolution • By the 800s, farmers started using new inventions. • Iron plow, harness, & windmill • Began to us the 3-field system to keep the soil fertile. • Grain, beans, fallow
Trade Revives • During the High Middle Ages, the economy of Europe grew stronger • As the pop. grew, people began to trade again. • As war diminished, there was a growing demand for goods. • Chinese silk, Asian spices, etc. • Merchants set up fairs • These meeting places grew into the 1st towns and cities.
A Commercial Revolution • As trade increased, people developed new ways of doing business. • They began using money. • They developed banks for lending. • 1st partnerships, system of insurance, & bills of exchange
Medieval society also changed. • A new middle class emerged that included traders, merchants, and artisans. • The lords & clergy despised them. • The church forbade Christians from lending money. (usury) • As a result, many Jews became money-lenders & played an important role in the new economy.
Role of Guilds • Merchants and artisans formed associations known as guilds. • Each guild represented workers in one occupation. • They made rules to protect the quality of their work, set prices, & look after their members. • Fewer people were serfs as times changed.
Medieval Guilds Guild Hall • Commercial Monopoly: • Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman master craftsman • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. • Controlled prices
Becoming a Guild Member • Apprentice at around 7 or 8 • Spent about 7 years training • Made no wages, but got room and board • Few became masters, but journeymen (salaried) • Women could become masters also, and dominated some trades (Paris – silk & woolen)
City Walls of medieval York, England Town & City Life • Surrounded by high, protective walls • With constant growth, newcomers had to settle in the fields… • Jumble of narrow streets lined w/ tall houses, dim lighting. • No garbage collection or sewer systems
Medieval walled city of Guérande... Medieval South Ampton, England
Growth of Royal Power in England and France Monarchs, Nobles & the Church • Nobles & the church had as much – or more – power as feudal kings • The monarchs began centralizing their power. • They gave rights to townspeople & gained their loyalty.
The Magna Carta(England) contained 2 important ideas that stay w/ us today. • People have rights • The monarch must also obey the law. • During the 1200s, Parliament also evolved. • Representatives of the “common people” joined w/ the lords. • House of Commons • House of Lords • (Later gained the “power of the purse”)
The Holy Roman Empire & the Church The Holy Roman Empire • After Charlemagne, Germany split into many states • Powerful nobles ruled the states. • Otto I of Saxony became the King of Germany. • He was later crowned emperor by the pope. • Conflicts w/ powerful nobles prevented future Holy Roman emperors from succeeding.
Conflict Between Popes & Emperors • Gregory VII was one of the greatest medieval popes & the most controversial. • Emperors & popes clashed over who had the right to pick bishops. • Lay investiture • Most nobles supported the pope. • Finally in 1122, the pope & emperor reached a settlement that the pope should choose (at the Concordat of Worms)
The Struggle for Italy • During the 1100s & 1200s, Holy Roman emperors tried to gain control of Italy. • Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) • While they were focusing on Italy, German nobles became more independent. • Therefore, Germany stayed divided while English & French kings were growing stronger.
The Height of Church Power • During the 1200s, the Church was very powerful. • Pope Gregory VII and Pope Innocent III believed the pope should have more power than any other ruler. • Rulers who objected were excommunicated. • After 1200s, the power of the pope declined. Pope Innocent III
Europeans Look Outward The World in 1050 • While Europe was still cut off from the world, other places were thriving. • Islamic civilization stretched from the Middle East to Spain. • China’s culture flourished. • The Byzantine empire was prosperous & a rival to Islam. • In 1050, the Seljuk Turks invaded Palestine. Seljuk Turks