The Rise of Europe 500 – 1450 A.D. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Rise of Europe 500 – 1450 A.D.
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The Rise of Europe 500 – 1450 A.D.

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  1. The Rise of Europe 500 – 1450 A.D.

  2. The Early Middle Ages Geography of Western Europe • In 500 A.D., northern Europe was sparsely populated • Dense forests, rich earth, mineral resources, large rivers,

  3. Characteristics of the Middle Ages • Population decreased • Trade almost ended • Learning stopped • No written laws • “Dark Ages” – Many warring invasions • Early Middle Ages: 500 – 1000 A.D. • High Middle Ages: 1000 – 1250 • Late Middle Ages: 1250 - 1500

  4. Europe in the 6th Century

  5. The Germanic Kingdoms • The tribes that defeated the Roman Empire were culturally very different • They lived in small communities & elected kings • B/w 400 & 700 AD, there were many small kingdoms • The strongest to emerge were the Franks. • Clovis – king • Converted to Christianity

  6. Europe and the Muslim World • Islam , a new force, swept through the Middle East & Med • Built a huge empire & captured Spain & Sicily • Christians feared the Muslims • The Franks under Charles Martel stopped the takeover of France at the Battle of Tours • Europeans did learn about science & math from the Muslims

  7. The Age of Charlemagne • Around 800, a Frankish king, Charles the Great built a large empire • The pope (Leo III) crowned Ch.. Emperor of the Romans • He wanted his capital to be like Rome & encouraged Latin & set up schools • He helped the Church spread Christianity • He appointed powerful nobles & sent out officials called missidominici Charlemagne: 742 to 814

  8. Charlemagne’s Empire

  9. Pope Crowned CharlemagneHoly Roman Emperor: Dec. 25, 800

  10. After Charlemagne • His empire fell apart after he died. • His grandsons drew up the Treaty of Verdun, which split the empire into 3 regions. • Legacy: He blended Germanic, Roman, and Christian ideas. • New invasions… • More Muslims • Magyars (Hungary) • Vikings in the 900s Charlemagne’s Empire Collapses:Treaty of Verdun, 843

  11. Feudalism and the Manor Economy The Emergence of Feudalism • Kings were not strong enough to stop invasions by outsiders • People needed protection so a new system, feudalism was developed. • Powerful lords owned large pieces of land • The land was divided into estates called fiefs.

  12. Fiefs were given to less powerful lords, called vassals. • Vassals promised loyalty & service to his lord • The lord promised to protect his vassal • Often vassals held fiefs from more than one lord. • They then had to choose a liege lord – 1st loyalty

  13. Feudalism A political, economic, and social system based on loyalty and military service.

  14. The World of Nobles • Warfare was a way of life & nobles battled constantly for power. • Knights were trained very strictly from the age of 7. • When feudal warfare decreased in the 1100s, tournaments replaced… • Castles had to withstand attack (stored food & water) Sleeping Beauty Castle Kassel, Germany

  15. Noblewomen & Chivalry • Played an active role in warrior society • The “lady of the manor” had many duties as the men were gone to war • Some were involved in politics – Eleanor of Aquitane became queen in both France & England • In the later Mid Ages, knights adopted a code of conduct called chivalry • They were brave, loyal, & truthful. • Women were to be protected & cherished.

  16. Peasants & Manor Life • Medieval economy was based on the manor • Most people were serfs who farmed the land. • They were not slaves, but were not allowed to leave w/out permission. • They received the lord’s protection and could even have several acres for themselves. • Most peasants were illiterate and never left the manor. • Simple diet of black bread w/ vegetables and families lived in one-room huts • Life was harsh & few lived past the age of 35.

  17. The Medieval Church The Church and Medieval Life • After the fall of Rome, the Church split into eastern & western churches. • Western – Roman Catholic church, headed by the pope • In 597, Pope Gregory I sent Augustine to convert the Anglo-Saxons

  18. Later missionaries spread Chr. throughout Europe • In manor villages, the priest was the peoples’ contact w/ the church. • Celebrated mass and administered the sacraments…leading to salvation.. • Christian rituals were part of the fabric of everyday life.

  19. They took pride in church buildings. • Holy men buried there • Christians paid a tithe • Women were viewed as “daughters of Eve,” but the ideal woman was as pure as Mary .

  20. One of the oldest Medieval churches

  21. Monks and Nuns • Some Christians spent their lives serving God. • About 530 B.C., a monk named Benedict organized the first monastery. (Convent) • They took 3 vows: • Obedience to the abbot • Poverty • Chastity • Cared for the sick and poor, and set up schools • Some were missionaries …life of service

  22. Abbess Hildegard – Composed music & wrote books Women’s roles were limited and there were many restrictions on nuns, such as no preaching.

  23. The Power of the Church Grows • Medieval popes eventually claimed papal supremacy, or authority over secular rulers also. • The Pope controlled vast lands. • Christians believed that all people were sinners & doomed to eternal suffering, so the church had the power of sacraments over people. • The church developed its own canon law & courts.

  24. Those who disobeyed Church law could face excommunication. • A noble who disobeyed could face the interdict, excluding a whole region. • The church tried to end feudal warfare.

  25. Reform Movements The success of the Church brought problems. • As wealth & power grew, discipline weakened. • Some clergy lived in luxury, and some ignored their vows. • Many called for reforms… Medieval monk, bishop, & priest

  26. Jews in Europe • Jewish communities existed across Europe. • Muslim Spain became a center of Jewish culture. (Sephardic) • Many rulers in N. Europe valued and protected… • In the late 1000s, Christian persecution of Jews began & worsened in bad economic times. • Many Jews then migrated to E. Europe and thrived. Jewish Prince in Moslem Spain: Selected Poems of Samuel ibn Nagrela, Chaiya's Sephardic World,

  27. Economic Expansion & Change An Agricultural Revolution • By the 800s, farmers started using new inventions. • Iron plow, harness, & windmill • Began to us the 3-field system to keep the soil fertile. • Grain, beans, fallow

  28. Trade Revives • During the High Middle Ages, the economy of Europe grew stronger • As the pop. grew, people began to trade again. • As war diminished, there was a growing demand for goods. • Chinese silk, Asian spices, etc. • Merchants set up fairs • These meeting places grew into the 1st towns and cities.

  29. Medieval Trade

  30. A Commercial Revolution • As trade increased, people developed new ways of doing business. • They began using money. • They developed banks for lending. • 1st partnerships, system of insurance, & bills of exchange

  31. Medieval society also changed. • A new middle class emerged that included traders, merchants, and artisans. • The lords & clergy despised them. • The church forbade Christians from lending money. (usury) • As a result, many Jews became money-lenders & played an important role in the new economy.

  32. Role of Guilds • Merchants and artisans formed associations known as guilds. • Each guild represented workers in one occupation. • They made rules to protect the quality of their work, set prices, & look after their members. • Fewer people were serfs as times changed.

  33. Medieval Guilds Guild Hall • Commercial Monopoly: • Controlled membershipapprentice journeyman  master craftsman • Controlled quality of the product [masterpiece]. • Controlled prices

  34. Medieval Guilds: A Goldsmith’s Shop

  35. Crest of a Cooper’s Guild

  36. Becoming a Guild Member • Apprentice at around 7 or 8 • Spent about 7 years training • Made no wages, but got room and board • Few became masters, but journeymen (salaried) • Women could become masters also, and dominated some trades (Paris – silk & woolen)

  37. City Walls of medieval York, England Town & City Life • Surrounded by high, protective walls • With constant growth, newcomers had to settle in the fields… • Jumble of narrow streets lined w/ tall houses, dim lighting. • No garbage collection or sewer systems

  38. Medieval city in Romania

  39. Medieval walled city of Guérande... Medieval South Ampton, England

  40. The Carolingian Renaissance

  41. Growth of Royal Power in England and France Monarchs, Nobles & the Church • Nobles & the church had as much – or more – power as feudal kings • The monarchs began centralizing their power. • They gave rights to townspeople & gained their loyalty.

  42. The Magna Carta(England) contained 2 important ideas that stay w/ us today. • People have rights • The monarch must also obey the law. • During the 1200s, Parliament also evolved. • Representatives of the “common people” joined w/ the lords. • House of Commons • House of Lords • (Later gained the “power of the purse”)

  43. The Holy Roman Empire & the Church The Holy Roman Empire • After Charlemagne, Germany split into many states • Powerful nobles ruled the states. • Otto I of Saxony became the King of Germany. • He was later crowned emperor by the pope. • Conflicts w/ powerful nobles prevented future Holy Roman emperors from succeeding.

  44. Conflict Between Popes & Emperors • Gregory VII was one of the greatest medieval popes & the most controversial. • Emperors & popes clashed over who had the right to pick bishops. • Lay investiture • Most nobles supported the pope. • Finally in 1122, the pope & emperor reached a settlement that the pope should choose (at the Concordat of Worms)

  45. The Struggle for Italy • During the 1100s & 1200s, Holy Roman emperors tried to gain control of Italy. • Emperor Frederick I (Barbarossa) • While they were focusing on Italy, German nobles became more independent. • Therefore, Germany stayed divided while English & French kings were growing stronger.

  46. The Height of Church Power • During the 1200s, the Church was very powerful. • Pope Gregory VII and Pope Innocent III believed the pope should have more power than any other ruler. • Rulers who objected were excommunicated. • After 1200s, the power of the pope declined. Pope Innocent III

  47. Europeans Look Outward The World in 1050 • While Europe was still cut off from the world, other places were thriving. • Islamic civilization stretched from the Middle East to Spain. • China’s culture flourished. • The Byzantine empire was prosperous & a rival to Islam. • In 1050, the Seljuk Turks invaded Palestine. Seljuk Turks