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Chapter 10. Chapter 10 section 1. Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Ancient Greece. Greek civilization was originally organized into city-states. At first a king ruled the city-state, or polis.

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Chapter 10 section 1

Chapter 10 section 1

Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome

Ancient greece
Ancient Greece

  • Greek civilization was originally organized into city-states.

  • At first a king ruled the city-state, or polis.

  • By the 400s B.C., the people who lived in the city-state ruled it. The Greeks thus developed a form of government known as democracy

Ancient greece1
Ancient Greece

  • The city-state of Athens was the home of the world’s first democratic constitution.

  • All free men over the age of 20 could vote.

  • Athenians produced works of philosophy, literature, and drama.

Athens sparta
Athens & Sparta

  • The city-states of Athens and Sparta often fought against each other because they wanted to expand their boundaries.

  • Athens united with Sparta during the Persian War to prevent the Persians from invading Greece.

Athens sparta1
Athens & Sparta

  • After the Persian threat passed, they fought each other again.

  • Sparta finally defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War.

Alexander the great
Alexander the Great

  • In the 300s B.C., Philip II and his son, Alexander the Great, conquered all of Greece.

  • Alexander went on to create a large empire.

  • Alexander and his successors spread Greek culture everywhere.

The rise of rome
The Rise of Rome

  • Legend says the city of Rome was founded by twin brothers Romulus and Remus.

  • What we know for fact is that Rome was settled around 1000 B.C. By 700 B.C., it had become a major city-state that controlled much of the Italian peninsula.

The rise of rome1
The Rise of Rome

  • Italy was often invaded.

  • The Romans built a strong army to defend their land.

  • The Romans borrowed ideas from other cultures.

  • From the Greeks, they borrowed art, religion, mythology, and the Latin alphabet.

Roman government
Roman Government

  • Rome began as a monarchy. It eventually changed to a republic.

  • In a republic, people choose their leaders.

  • In Rome, the people elected two consuls. The two consuls reported to the Senate. Members of the Senate were landowners who served for life.

Roman law
Roman Law

  • The Twelve Tables formed the base of Roman law.

  • Laws about wills, courts, and property were recorded on the tablets.

  • All Roman citizens had to follow the laws.

Chapter 10

  • The Romans built temples, stadiums, and baths.

  • They also built aqueducts, which were channels that carried water long distances.

  • They built roads that brought people and goods to Italy.

  • This helped Rome to grow.

Greek roman legacy
Greek & Roman Legacy

  • Greek democracy, the republican form of government, and Roman law all became important in Western civilization and the Modern Age.

Chapter 10 section 2

Chapter 10 section 2

Medieval Europe


  • Pope- leader of the Catholic Church

  • Missionary- person who spreads his or her religious views

  • common law- unwritten laws that come from local customs

  • Feudalism- medieval political and social system based on an exchange of land for military service

  • Vassal- person who swore loyalty to a higher lord in exchange for a grant of land

  • Manor- feudal estate

  • Serf- a type of farmer who was not as free as a tenant farmer and was usually poorer

  • Guild- workers’ organization

  • charter -written document outlining privileges and freedoms for city residents

The rise of christianity
The Rise of Christianity

  • The 1,000-year period between Classical and modern times is called the medieval era, from a Latin word for “Middle Ages.”

  • It was during the Middle Ages that Christianity in the form of the Roman Catholic Church became a political power in western Europe.

The rise of christianity1
The Rise of Christianity

  • The early popes sent missionaries to spread their religious views.

  • Through missionary taught schools, the Christian Church greatly advanced learning in Europe.

The crusades
The Crusades

  • Beginning in the A.D. 1000s, the Church sponsored a series of holy wars called the Crusades.

  • Their purpose was to capture Jerusalem from its Islamic rulers.

The impact of the crusades
The impact of the Crusades

  • They led to centuries of distrust between Christians and Muslims.

  • They increased the mistreatment of the Jews in Europe.

The impact of the crusades1
The impact of the Crusades

  • It also made Europeans aware of the rich cultures of the Byzantines and Muslims.

  • Europeans wanted spices and cloth from the East.

  • To meet the demand, new trade routes were opened.

  • As trade grew, so did Western European towns.

Holy roman empire
Holy Roman Empire

  • On Christmas Day in the year 800, Charlemagne was proclaimed the protector of the Christian Church and was crowned the head of the Roman Empire in the West, which became known as the Holy Roman Empire.

  • After Charlemagne died, his heirs broke up his kingdom, creating the foundations for the modern countries of Germany, Italy, France, and Spain.

Medieval society
Medieval Society

  • A new political and social system known as feudalism emerged during the Middle Ages.

  • Under feudalism, kings would give land to a noble.

  • In exchange, the noble provided military service and knights for the king’s army.

  • The noble swore loyalty to the king and became his vassal.

  • The feudal estate was called the manor.

  • Two types of farmers on the manor were tenants and serfs.

  • Serfs were not as free and were usually poorer than tenant farmers.

The growth of cities
The Growth of Cities

  • Towns in the Middle Ages were independent and served as centers of trade and manufacturing.

  • Manufacturing came under the control of workers’ organizations known as guilds.

  • Kings won the support of the townspeople by building great cathedrals and granting the residents privileges and freedoms in written documents called charters.

  • Kings collected taxes in exchange for granting charters. With money, kings could pay soldiers

Chapter 10 section 3

Chapter 10 section 3

Renaissance to Revolution

The renaissance
The Renaissance

  • The Renaissance—sparked by an interest in education, art, and science—began around 1350 in cities of northern Italy and spread to other cities of Europe.

  • Renaissance scholars were called humanists because they were interested more in the world and humans around them than in religious ideas.

Chapter 10

The renaissance1
The Renaissance

  • The printing press with moveable type was invented around 1450 by Johannes Gutenberg.

  • The printing press made books more numerous and less expensive, thereby encouraging more people to learn to read and write.

  • Western European rulers became more powerful, uniting people and creating nations based on a common language and culture.

The protestant reformation
The Protestant Reformation

  • Some people during the Renaissance believed that Church leaders were more interested in wealth than religion.

  • Others disagreed with corrupt practices of the Church, such as the selling of indulgences, or documents that freed the buyers from punishment for their sins.

  • Because these Christians “protested” corrupt Church practices, they came to be called Protestants.

The protestant reformation1
The Protestant Reformation

  • The movement to reform, or change, the Catholic Church was called the Protestant Reformation.

  • Two Protestant leaders were Martin Luther, who organized his own new Christian church that taught in German, and John Calvin, whose followers included the American Puritans.

The age of exploration
The Age of Exploration

  • By the mid-1400s, Europe began to reach out beyond its boundaries in a great age of discovery and exploration.

  • In 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain sent an Italian navigator, Christopher Columbus, westward across the Atlantic searching for another way to Asia.

  • The Dutch, English, and French soon joined the Spanish and Portuguese in exploring and settling and trading with the Americas, Asia, and Africa.

  • Eventually—in addition to trade goods—people, diseases, and ideas were distributed around the world in a process called the Columbian Exchange.

The age of revolution
The Age of Revolution

  • A revolution is a great and often violent change.

  • Toward the end of the 1700s, people came to feel that they should play a greater, more direct role in government.

  • The belief in the divine right of kings was fading.

  • John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau believed the government should serve the people and protect them and their freedom.

The age of revolution1
The Age of Revolution

  • In Great Britain, kings and queens were forced to accept a constitution, a plan for government that shared power but gave most of it to the Parliament.

  • In the 1770s, the American colonies revolted against European control and became a model for many revolutions in Europe and the Americas.

  • The French Revolution stimulated other peoples to demand more personal and political control over their lives.