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Topic VIII. Growth of the United States. The Industrial Revolution. Period of time where machines replaced handmade tools and new sources of power such as steam , water , and wind replaced human and animal power. The Industrial Revolution began in England in the mid-1700s.

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topic viii

Topic VIII

Growth of the United States

the industrial revolution
The Industrial Revolution
  • Period of time where machines replaced handmade tools and new sources of power such as steam, water, and wind replaced human and animal power.
  • The Industrial Revolution began in England in the mid-1700s.
  • New inventions led to a new way of producing goods.
  • Example: 1764 – James Hargreaves developed the spinning jenny which could spin several threads at once.
samuel slater
Samuel Slater
  • Samuel Slater was a skilled mechanic in a British textile mill who heard the Americans were offering rewards for those who could help design textile mills.
  • Textile: a cloth, especially one manufactured by weaving or knitting; a fabric or Fiber or yarn for weaving or knitting into cloth
  • In 1789 he left England and traveled to the United States having memorized plans for a textile factory.
  • Slater helped Moses Brown, a Quaker capitalist, who had a mill in Pawtucket, Rhode Island.
  • Capitalist– a person who invests in a business in order to make a profit.
  • By 1793, he developed the first successful textile mill in the US which was powered by water
eli whitney
Eli Whitney
  • an American inventor who proposed the concept of interchangeable parts.
  • All machine made parts would be alike which saves time and money
  • Invented the cotton gin (engine) which separated cotton seeds from its fibers
  • Invention of the cotton gin led to a swift growth (or boom) in cotton production
lowell massachusetts
Lowell, Massachusetts
  • Francis Cabot Lowell, a Boston merchant, found a way to improve on British textile mills.
  • He created a mill which combined spinning and weaving under one roof. After his death, his partners built an entire factory town and named it after him.
  • To work in their new mills, the company hired young women from nearby farms. They were called “Lowell Girls.”
  • In Lowell and other towns, companies hired mostly women and children because they could pay them low wages.

The mills of Lowell, Massachusetts are well-known for employing large numbers of women. In the 1840s, nearly half the female population of Lowell worked in the mills. Each mill employed a few hundred people. This trade card for the Merrimack Manufacturing Co. shows women working at the cloth-making machines.

daily life in the factories
Daily Life in the Factories
  • child labor – boys and girls as young as seven worked in factories.
  • long hours – 12 hours a day, six days a week.
  • changes in home life – more family members left the home; role of women changed.
american cities
American Cities
  • Many people left farms to work in factories. Older cities grew rapidly while new ones sprang up around factories.
  • The movement of the population from farms to cities is called urbanization.
  • Hazards – dirt and gravel streets turned into mudholes when it rained, no sewers, garbage in the streets, disease, overcrowding, etc.
  • Attractions – theaters, museums, and circuses became popular.

2000 U.S. population density within each county, in persons per sq. mile (lower 48 states only): Light to dark (yellow to blue): 1-4 (y), 5-9 (lt. green), 10-24 (teal), 25-49 (dk. teal), 50-99 (blue-green), 100-249 (blue), 250-66,995 (black).

transportation improvements
Transportation Improvements
  • Flat Boats – or flat-bottom boats, which were well-suited to the shallow waters of the Ohio River
transportation improvements1
Transportation Improvements
  • Roads
  • Turnpikes - private companies built gravel and stone roads. To pay for the roads, companies collected tolls from travelers.

Lancaster Turnpike

First important turnpike in America. Also the first long-distance stone and gravel road in the country. Chartered in 1792 and completed in 1795, it ran 62 miles from Philadelphia to Lancaster and gave travelers an easier way to reach the Northwest Territory.

transportation improvements2
Transportation Improvements
  • Roads (continued)
  • National Road (orCumberland Road) was built by the federal government between 1811 and 1839. The road stretched from Maryland to Illinois
transportation improvements3
Transportation Improvements
  • Steamboat
  • John Fitch – showed members of the Constitutional Convention how a steam engine could power a boat (1787)
  • Robert Fulton – launched a steamboat in 1807 called the Clermont on the Hudson River.
transportation improvements4
Transportation Improvements
  • Steam Locomotive
  • In 1829, a steam powered locomotive called the “Rocket” was developed. It could travel up to 30 miles per hour.
transportation improvements5
Transportation Improvements
  • Canal– artificial channel filled with water that allows boats to cross a stretch of land
impact on the united states
Impact on the United States
  • Encouraged trade
  • Provided links between the “East” and the “West”
  • Encouraged settlement in remote areas
  • New states created
first railroads
First Railroads
  • Began in the early 1800s
  • Horses or mules pulled cars along rails
  • 1829: steam powered locomotive called the “Rocket” was developed. It could travel up to 30 miles per hour.
problems of first railroads
Problems of First Railroads
  • Unsafe
  • Unreliable
  • Weak bridges and roadbeds
  • Locomotives often broke down
  • Smokestacks emitted thick black smoke and hot embers causing fires
  • Wooden rails (eventually replaced with iron rails)
the telegraph machine
The Telegraph Machine
  • Device which sent electrical signals along a wire
  • Invented by Samuel Morse
  • Signal was based on a code of dots, dashes, and spaces – eventually called Morse Code
sewing machine
Sewing Machine
  • Elias Howe – creates first sewing machine in 1846
mechanical reaper
Mechanical Reaper
  • Cyrus McCormick
  • Invents the Mechanical reaper in 1847
  • Machine helped farmers harvest their crops faster.
  • Before his invention farmers had to harvest grain by hand, using a long handled tool called a scythe.
iron plow
Iron Plow
  • 1825 – Jethro Wood developed iron plow with interchangeable parts
  • 1830 – John Deere develops his steel plow
clipper ships
Clipper Ships
  • Clipper Ship: sleek vessels which had tall masts and huge sails
  • Extremely fast ship which was used to transport cargo around the world
railroads and clipper ships
Railroads and Clipper Ships
  • Railroads and clipper ships increased commerce (trade) in the United States.
  • Goods could be shipped quickly and cheaply.
  • Northern areas developed factories whereas in the south and west focused on agriculture
  • By 1830s, factories made the transition from water to steam power
  • Clipper ships were eventually outperformed by iron steamships
james monroe
James Monroe
  • Fifth president of the United States
  • defeated Senator Rufus King of New York in election of 1816
  • Wins again in election of 1820 against John Quincy Adams.
  • Monroe hoped to create a new sense of national unity – called the “Era of Good Feelings”
  • Promote nationalism – feeling of pride in one’s country
economic problems
Economic Problems
  • Problems:
  • 1. Bank of United States - created by Alexander Hamilton, its charter ran out in 1811. Bank lends money and regulates supply
  • 2. Foreign CompetitionWar of 1812 kept British imports to a minimum; this, in part, allowed people like Francis Cabot Lowell to build successful textile factories. But, after the war ended, trade resumed and more imports entered the U.S. Because the British had a head start on the Industrial Revolution, they were able to produce goods faster and cheaper.
  • 3. Poor Infrastructure- system of roads, canals, bridges, etc.
economic solutions
Economic Solutions
  • Bank Solution:
  • Congress created the Second Bank of the United States in 1816.
  • Banks can regulate money
economic solutions1
Economic Solutions
  • Foreign Competition Solution:
  • 2. Congress passed the Tariff Act of 1816 – this placed a tax on British imports.
economic solutions2
Economic Solutions
  • Infrastructure Solutions:
  • Use revenue collected by the federal government to build up the nation’s infrastructure
  • Example: The National Road
sectionalism and henry clay
Sectionalism and Henry Clay
  • John C. Calhoun - South Carolina, supported War of 1812, defended slavery, opposed to strong federal government.
  • Daniel Webster – New Hampshire, opposed War of 1812, opposed slavery, supported strong federal government for economic growth.
  • Henry Clay - Kentucky, War Hawk, supported strong federal government for economic growth
  • Sectionalism: loyalty to one’s state or section rather than to the nation as a whole.
  • The American System – Henry Clay wanted to promote economic growth for all sections.
  • The system called for high tariffs on imports which would help northern factories. Clay believed, northerners would have the money to buy farm products from the West and the South. High tariffs would also reduce American dependence on foreign goods.
  • Clay also urged Congress to use money from tariffs to build roads, canals, and bridges. A better transportation system, he believed, would make it easier and cheaper for farmers in the West and the South to ship goods to city markets.
  • The American System never fully went into effect. Congress spent little time on internal improvements (infrastructure). Southerners in particular disliked Clay’s plan because the South had many fine rivers on which to transport goods. Many southerners opposed paying for roads and canals that brought them no direct benefits.
mcculloch v maryland 1819
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
  • The dispute arose over Maryland’s proposal to tax the Second National Bank of the United States.
  • Supreme Court ruled that states had no right to interfere with federal institutions within their borders.
  • Chief Justice- John MarshallJames McCulloch - Bank Cashier
gibbons v ogden 1824
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
  • The dispute arose over a New York law which attempted to control steam boat travel between New York and New Jersey
  • Supreme Court upheld the power of the federal government to regulate trade between states.
united states and spanish florida
United States and Spanish Florida
  • The First Seminole War (1817-1818) began when settlers attacked Florida Indians and the Indians retaliated by raiding isolated Georgia homesteads. Americans believed Spain had incited the Seminoles against the white settlers.
  • The First Seminole War (1817-1818) began in earnest this year with a U.S. invasion of East Florida to punish hostile Seminole Indians, whose territory had become a refuge for runaway slaves.
  • American troops on July 27, 1816, had destroyed the Seminole stronghold of Fort Apalachicola, on the river of that name. On December 27, 1817, General Andrew Jackson took command, with orders to pursue the Indians across the Florida boundary. Jackson marched his troops into Florida and captured St. Marks on April 7, 1818m and Pensacola on May 24. In the course of his campaign, Jackson seized two British traders, Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister.
  • He accused them of aiding the enemy and had the former hanged and the latter shot. There was a great outcry in England and considerable criticism in Washington. Nevertheless, popular opinion approved the campaign, which brought East Florida under American control and resulted in its cession to the U.S. by Spain in 1819 for five million dollars..
  • Adams-Onis Treaty
monroe doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
  • Foreign Policy statement under Monroe
  • Basically said two things:1. The United States would not interfere in the affairs of European Nations or existing colonies of the European Nations.2. warned European nations not to attempt to regain control of newly independent countries of Latin America.