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Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers . - Air or Liquid heat integration -. Søren J. Andreasen Associate Professor, Fuel Cell and Battery Research group. Outline. Introduction S ystem control approach

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design and control of high temperature pem fuel cell systems using methanol reformers

Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers

- Air or Liquid heat integration -

Søren J. Andreasen

Associate Professor, Fuel Cell and Battery Research group

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • System control approach
  • Methanol reformers and HTPEM fuelcells
    • Air heat exchange
    • Liquid heat exchange
  • System controlchallenges
  • Conclusion
system control approach
System control approach

Controller

Evaluation

/Implementation

Control

Strategy

Development

Component Characterization/Modelling

System

Design

reformed methanol htpem fuel cell systems
Reformedmethanol HTPEM fuelcell systems
  • PBI-basedMEAs have a high tolerance to CO
  • A liquidfuel, such as methanol is easilyaccessable and storable
  • Heat canbeutililzed in fuelconversion
  • System energydensityincrease is ”cheap”
  • System size and complexityincreases
  • Impuritiesareintroduced
applications hybridization
Applications – Hybridization
  • Complicated system dynamicsoftenrequirehybridization with electricalenergystorage for highlifetime and reliability
  • Improvements in load followingcouldbeattainedusingcontrolschemes
reformer system air heat exchange
Reformer system - air heat exchange
  • Cathode air cooled FC stacks have highqualitywaste heat thatcanbedirectly transferred and used for evaporation of reformer fuel.
  • Proper heat integration and design is required to avoidhighBoPconsumption.
reformer system air heat exchange1
Reformer system - air heat exchange
  • Individual system components arecharacterized ex-situ, suchthatfuelcellstack and reformer system behaviourcanbeseparated.
  • Fuzzylogic / Neural networkmodels of internal system states, canbedeveloped
  • Model basedcontrolapproachesareimplemented in system software and system improvementsarequantified.

Serenergy H3-350 off-gridbattery charger

(HTPEM + SR)

reformer system air heat exchange2
Reformer system - air heat exchange
  • Example: Extensive ex-situ reformer output gas measurementsusing gas analyzerscreate the foundation for ”learning” system behaviour by an Adaptive Neuro-FuzzyInference System (ANFIS) model.
  • Proper prediction of gas composition, anode stoichiometry, etc. canenablehigherefficiency, reliability and lifetime.
reformer system liquid heat exchange
Reformer system - liquid heat exchange
  • Liquid heat transfer canminimize system size and BoP power consumption.
  • System logisticsare more conventional.
  • Several system topologiesareusabledepending on applicationutility heat and demand.
system control challenges
System controlchallenges
  • Pump flow determinesusable hydrogen flow in the FC anode, but fuel evaporation and conversionneed to beconsidered.
  • A modelbased approach canbeused for proper feedforwardcontol and determination of system setpoints.
  • For example ANFIS modellingcan provide highprescisionstatepredictionbased on experimentalresultsavoidingundesired system operating conditions.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Efficientand reliable HTPEM fuelcell systems are at a development stage, where system design and controlareincreasingly relevant.
  • Fuelcell systems are excellent part load performers, but lag, complex systems dynamics and expensivestatemonitoringcan limit load followingcapabilities and system performance.
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

The authourswouldlike to gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the EUDP program and the Danish Energy Agency for sponsoring the project :COmmercialBReakthrough of Advanced Fuel Cells - (COBRA)

Thank you