Welcome and Introductions
Training Agenda Day 1 • Defining and Understanding Engagement • Strategies and Tools to engage families in addressing unmet needs • Exploring Resistant and Self Care Day 2 • Stages of Change and Conditions for Change • Engagement skills to identify and address Mental Health needs • Strategies to engage community partners and help families engage their communities
Did You know? More children die from abuse in 1st year of life? Half of child abuse victims are under 7 85% of fatalities are under 6 Children exposed to Domestic Violence are 15 times more likely to be abused than the national average Battered women are 2 times more likely to abuse their children than comparison groups High correlation between Domestic Violence and Child Abuse U.S. ranks 3rd among 27 industrialized countries in child maltreatment deaths (Gentry, 2004; UNICEF, 2003, Children’s Bureau, 2003, Osofsky, 2003, Edleson, 1999, Margolin & Gordis, 2000, McCloskey, 1995)
Research Supports Engagement Research Demonstrates: a direct correlation between family engagement and child safety and re-occurrence of maltreatment Engagement is key to conducting comprehensive assessments, enhancing decision making and making individualized plans that fit for families “Approach matters” when helping children and families “The Social Worker matters” related to client success (Lambert and Barley, 2002)
Approach Matters “Small things such as the way that workers introduce themselves, the way that workers describe the allegation and the tone of voice impact the willingness of the family to allow us in the front door, and into their lives.” Lorrie Lutz, “Operationalizing the DCFS Practice Model…”
What Does Engagement Look Like? Small Group Activity: Introduce self and share one of your best moments when you effectively engaged a child, youth, parent foster parent, service provider, etc. For those who have worked with transitional age youth, how did your engagement support the development of self-sufficiency skills,
Core Practice Model Social Work strategies required to identify unmet needs: Strength/Needs Practice & Child Safety Basic knowledge, foundation of CPS, legal mandates
Building Effective Partnerships Leads to Improved Teaming Leads to Improved Assessment Leads to Improved Planning Leads to Improved Outcomes DCFS strives to “Help children & families make meaningful and long lasting changes.”
Foundation of Engagement – Strength/Needs Practice The Core Belief that… “ALL FAMILIES HAVE STRENGTHS & THE POWER TO CHANGE!”
Then Why Can Engagement Be So Challenging At Times? LARGE GROUP ACTIVITY: IDENTIFYING THE CHALLENGES TO ENGAGEMENT
Barriers while involved in Urban Child Welfare Settings -Dorian Traube, PhD Triple Threat: Poverty, Single Parent Status and Stress Concrete Obstacles: Time, Transportation, Child Care, Competing Priorities Stigma/Attitudes about mental health Previous negative experience with child welfare services Limited awareness of child development and impact of stressors
Behaviors that CSWs may encounter… Children:Defiance Frequent Runaways Multiple Placements Anger/Hostility Withdrawn/Uncommunicative Parents: Denial (excuses) Anger (Blaming/ Threats) Unmotivated Distrustful/Dishonest Avoidance (Lack of Action) False Compliance
Challenges to Engagement Often Reflect Child Trauma & Complex Needs How does thinking about needs help me work better with children and families?
Hunches About Clients’ Needs Small Group Activity: Review Smith Family Vignette Identify the behaviors/concerns re: Christine and Denise Identify Denise’s hunches about what is happening with Christine Identify your (CSW’s) hunches re: what is driving Denise and Christine’s behavior Identity your (CSW’s) hunches about Denise and Christine’s self-identified underlying needs (Hint: Do not identify services) How would you engage Denise and Christine regarding their needs?
Strength-Needs Practice Appreciating the needs of the parent’s child and finding common ground about their worries Requires engaging the parent through the NEEDS of the child Requires focusing on needs throughout the life of the case (assessment and planning are ongoing)
Systemic Challenges to Engagement(“no wonder the work can sometimes feel overwhelming”) • Bureaucracy • Case Load/Work Load • Competing Priorities • Limited Resources • Court • Service Providers • Foster Care • Training
Challenges To Engagement May Reflect Workers’ Needs Let’s Discuss: What are some of your needs related to better engaging clients?
“Hunches” About Worker’s Needs Support Time Safety/Respect Accountability Core Values Professional Development Coaching and Mentoring Other_______
Parallel ProcessHow our own experience helps us to effectively engage with others Small Group Activity: Write down differences and/or similarities we have with our clients’ feelings and/or experiences? Discuss: How does this awareness of differences/similarities contribute to effectively working with clients? Discuss: How does the way we manage our own experiences or feelings impact the quality of the work we do with our families?
Strength-Needs PracticeRequires Effective Working Relationships Core Conditions: Respect Empathy Genuine Competency
Rapport: First Step of Engagement Rapport is the Building Block to Engagement Engagement requires Rapport Rapport does not equate to Engagement
Rapport Rapport involves reducing the level of threat and gaining the trust of clients because there is helpful intent. Perceiving the worker as understanding and genuinely interested in their well being. (adapted from Hepworth & Rooney, Rooney, et al., 2008)
Engagement: Moves Beyond Rapport Adapted from Vincent, 2008 Effective working relationships with shared tasks and goals Mutual accountability Active listening that supports family empowerment Honest, open dialogue about concerns and success Flexibility in response Ability to solicit feedback from children & families
Rapport vs. Engagement Rapport Empathy Kind/Respectful Mutual understanding Comfort Trust Engagement Active listening “Real” dialogue Mutual feedback Flexibility Solution/Goal Focus
Rapport vs. Engagement Large Group Exercise
Telling a client: “I can see that this is a very difficult time for you” • Rapport • Engagement
Allowing the client time to tell their side of the story • Rapport • Engagement
Maintaining a respectful atmosphere when interviewing a family • Rapport • Engagement
Helping a family think about potential barriers for the plan of care • Rapport • Engagement
Giving a family options for what type of services they might receive • Rapport • Engagement
Telling the family that your goal is to help them function more effectively, not change their family • Rapport • Engagement
Engagement and the Use of Authority Seek to avoid, to the extent possible, actions that minimize/undermine parents’ power It is important to remember that invoking authority is easier and requires less skill than engaging families People are more disclosing, open, and cooperative if they don’t feel threatened and judged Lorrie Lutz
Moving From Rapport to Engagement Examine own comfort with use of “protective authority” Develop practice skills to become an “accountable ally” with the children and families on my case load Small Group Discussion: How have you observed yourself or others using either too little or too much authority? How do you feel about using authority when working with children and families? What skills would you like to enhance in order to become an effective “accountable ally”? How would you assess yourself: too uncomfortable with using authority or too authoritative and directive?
Shifting the Focus of Engagement -Talking About Needs Instead of Behaviors Behaviors are important but may unintentionally distract us from a person’s real need Needs are not services but are what “drives the behavior” Addressing needs is key to sustaining meaningful change Connecting needs to behaviors can strengthen a family’s willingness to work together with DCFS and partners Needs reflect the unique experience of the child within the context of their culture
3 Engagement SkillsTo help children and families identify and address their needs Exploring Focusing Guiding - PaulVincent
1) Exploring SkillsActive listening and hearing what people want to say before addressing “the problem” Adapted from Vincent, 2008 • Attentive and Interested (Physically and Psychologically) • Recognizing Strengths and Needs • Encouraging Expressions of Feelings (Ventilation, Validation, Conciliatory Gestures) • Normalization and Objectivity • Reflection (Convey Understanding)
2) Focusing Skills Centering discussion on the needs that are most important Vincent, 2008 Questions (Open, Closed, Indirect) Summarization (concise review) Clarification (together, define words used) Concreteness (no DCFS/social work jargon) Reframing (look for positives) Solution-Focused
3) Guiding Skills Collaboratively identifying solutions and creating a plan to carry out ideas Vincent, 2008 Formulating options with family input Partialization Information/Suggestions Strengths and Needs based feedback Positive feedback: what is working well Constructive feedback: what can be working better,
Keys to EngagementParts 1 - 3 Demonstration & Large Group Activity Small Group Activity and Practice Large Group Activity: Feedback Regarding Role Plays
Keys to Engagement How did the utilization of keys Invite discussion and disclosure Identify and mobilize strengths Discuss hunches around needs Focus on solutions Offer hope …strengthen the working relationship?
Understanding and Normalizing “Resistance” (When helpful intent sometimes collides with a lack of trust) Let’s Discuss: Resistant Behaviors/Situations you observe If you have worked with youth who need to develop self-sufficiency skills, does resistance arise in a different way?
Good Practice Recognizes “RESISTANCE IS A PREDICTABLE AND NATURAL EMOTIONAL REACTION TO FEELING FORCED TO CHANGE OR WHEN FACING DIFFICULT ISSUES.” “RESISTANCE OCCURS AS A RESPONSE TO FEELING VULNERABLE, OUT-OF-CONTROL AND THREATENED BY CHANGE.” Adapted from Vincent 2008
Good Practice Recognizes Resistance Reflects Needs Let’s Discuss: What “Needs” may be underlying the resistance? What Practice Skills are required to address those needs?
Strategies That Help Clients Move From “Resistant to Ready” • Resistance is important information; not to be judged • Prepare for resistance; it’s part of the change process • Actively listen, validate feeling and reflect what is happening • Remain respectful • Focus on the needs of the child as a place to join together • Focus on solutions or desired results • Reflect when we do react and remain available to help