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Imam Ali (a.s.), Part II

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  1. Imam Ali (a.s.), Part II Chronology: after the Prophet (pbuh) A.S. Hashim, MD

  2. After The Prophet: The Aftermath • Without a job, Ali finds a job at an orchard belonging to a Jewish person • Fatima is sick • Ali Tutors his children, along with Ibn Abbas • Ali buys one slave each week then set him free • Ali Writes the Quran according to the order the Ayahs were revealed

  3. After the Prophet: The aftermath • Ali Under pressure to give allegiance to Abu Bakr • Fatima campaigns for Ali • Fatima gives a stirring speech at the Masjid of the Prophet • Fatima’s health deteriorates fast • Tough times: • Financially • Politically • At home

  4. Ali during Khilaafah of Abu Bakr • Ali Finishes writing the chronology of the Quran • Fatima dies: Ali left with four children • Fatima buried at night according to her Will • Only few are notified and attend burial • Ali gives Allegiance to Abu Bakr

  5. War of the renouncers! حروب الرده • For sake of Islam’s wellbeing, Ali gives support to Abu Bakr • Ali begins writing Tafseer of the Quran called Mus’haf Fatima in Fatima’s honor • Continues tutoring his children • Continues to tutor Ibn Abbas after work • Continues to buy then free a slave every week

  6. Ali during Abu Bakr’s reign • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain learn to write • Ibn Abbas heads toward being scholarly • Ali the Marji' (the Reference) • Ali frees an average of one slave per week (about 100 during Abu Bakr’s Khilaafah) • Condition of the Ummah seems to stabilize

  7. Omar appointed as Khalifa • Abu Bakr appoints Omar to Khilaafah • Ali gives support to Omar • Ali active in Omar's Council • Ali teaches and educates • Ali now married again • Ali's family expands, he teaches at home

  8. Ali’s during Omar’s reign • Ali finishes off writing Tafseer of the Quran • Ali writes the wealth of Hadith • Ali starts writing the Ah'kaam • Al-Hasan helps his father in the writing • Omar marries Ali’s daughter: Umm Kalthoom • Ali continues to buy then free one slave per week (520) during Omar's Reign

  9. Ali’s writings during Abu Bakr and Omar’s Khilaafah: Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: Quran in chorological order Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) Ah’kaam Ali’s writings

  10. Ali during Uthman’s Reign • Ali advises Uthman at first • Ali detects a mellow ruler in Uthman • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain are married • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain in North Africa's campaign against the Byzantine. They reach Carthage in Libya to-days. • Carthage battle decisive, Muslims victorious

  11. Ali and Umm Al-Baneen • Ali Marries Umm Al-Baneen • Ali has 5 boys through Umm Al-Baneen: • Al-Abbas, 13 Years younger than Al-Husain • One (nicknamed) Abu Bakr • One (nicknamed) Omar • One (nicknamed) Uthman • Ali

  12. Uthman in mid-term I • Uthman listens to his relative Marwan, • Ali’s advice is ignored frequently • Uthman appoints corrupt relatives as State Governors • Uthman mistreats Ibn Masood and Abu Dhar

  13. Uthman in mid-term II • People object to Uthman’s rule and revolt • Ali tries to help Uthman • Uthman surrounded by the rebels, is defended by Al-Hasan and Al-Husain among others • Al-Hasan gets wounded defending Uthman • Uthman is killed by the rebellious men • Ali is upset to the extreme

  14. Ali during Uthman’s reign I • Ali finishes writing Al-Ah'kaam • Ali writes the Jafr: • White Jafr • Red Jafr • Ali compares the Quranic text he wrote with the one written during Khilaafah of Uthman. Surahs were the exact replica

  15. Ali’s writings during: Abu Bakr, Omar, and Uthman’s Khilaafah: Corpus of Knowledge consists of the following: Quran in chorological order Tafseer (Mus’haf Fatima) Hadith (Saheefa of Ali) Ah’kaam Al-Jafr White Jafr: Prophets and early times Red Jafr: Rules of war in Islam Ali’s writings

  16. Ali during Uthman’s reign II • Worrisome conditions of the Ummah • Ali trying to diffuse discord • Continues to be the Marji’ • Tutors the new children born to him • Ali continues to buy then free one slave per week. He freed 600 during Khilaafah of Uthman.

  17. Imam Ali (a.s.) the Khalifa • Ali's administration: Exceptionally fair • Wants to distribute the wealth fairly but many wealthy people object • A'isha, Talha, and Zubair agitate • A'isha, Talha, and Zubair revolt, claiming to avenge Uthman’s blood • Benu Umayya join the rebels full force • Mu’awiya rebels in a sneaky way

  18. Ali’s Forces 12,000 Includes numerous Sahaaba (said 300) Al-Hasan and Al-Husain Muhammad son of Abu Bakr Ali’s forces Prevail The other side: Includes Talha, Zubair, and A’isha Local people of Basrah Most of Benu Umayya clan The fired governor of Yemen who stole the treasury of Yemen Confrontation at Basra

  19. Jamal Battle • Protracted negotiations • Persuades Zubair not to fight • Zubair quits • The battle: Goes fast and about to end • A’isha: On top of a camel urges to go on fighting • People rally around the camel • Incapacitating the camel ends the fight

  20. Jamal Sequence

  21. Jamal Battle II • Ali lets A’isha be at home in Basrah to rest • 40 Guards in company of A’isha on her way to Medina • Brother of A’isha in charge of the escorting guards (Muhammad son of Abu Bakr) • Al-Hasan and Al-Husain escort A’isha to the boundary of Basrah • The 40 guards turn out to be women dressed as men

  22. Jamal Battle III • Benu Umayya, forming large part of the forces • Set free after the Battle • Talha: was Killed by Marwan ibn Hakam • Zubair: Did not participate • The casualties: Fairly high • The aftermath: Benu Umayya now join Mu’awiya to fight Ali in Siffin

  23. Kufa the Capital • Kufa the New Capital because: • Kufa is central in the Islamic Ummah • Center of the bread basket of the area (Iraq) • Closer to areas of revolts • Possibility of better support to Ali • Proved less disciplined and less reliable

  24. Mu’awiya and Siffin • Mu’awiya claiming revenge for Uthman’s blood • Mu’awiya’s forces move north to Siffin • Mu’awiya cuts off water supply to Ali • Ali’s forces reach Siffin, overpower guards preventing water • Ali’s side generously allows water to Mu’awiya forces

  25. Siffin • Ali, trying to prevent bloodshed, sends negotiating delegates to Mu’awiya • Negotiations continue for one month • Negotiations fail • Battle of Siffin starts

  26. Siffin II • Siffin Battle: • Duration: 9 Days • Severity: Severe in many days • Casualties: Thousands dead and wounded • Ammar Unique Role.

  27. Siffin Sequence

  28. Importance of Ammar • Ammar was in Ali’s camp • The Prophet (pbuh) told Ammar 30 Yrs earlier: يا عمار سوف تقتلك الفئة الباغيه ”O’ Ammar, you will be killed by the malicious group.” • Ammar along with 400 companions fought Mu’awiya bravely until Ammar was killed. • A lot of Commotion was the result in Mu’awiya’s camp.

  29. Near the end of battle • As Ali’s forces reach near Mu’awiya’s Headquarters in victory: • Mu’awiya knows how religious Ali’s side is • Mu’awiya gives commands to lift 500 Qurans on tips of Spears (thus desecrating them) • Mu’awiya asks for arbitration • Commotion is the result in Ali’s Camp • Ali is forced for Arbitration by his troops

  30. Tricking Ali’s forces • Ibn Ash’ath and other undercover agents in Ali’s camp cajoled and bribed by Mu’awiya, they work for him • Ibn Ash’ath and Khariji insist on their demands to arbitrate • Ali is forced toward Arbitration • Ali chooses the brilliant Ibn Abbas to represent him

  31. Arbitration • Ali wanted Ibn Abbas, but Khariji insisted instead on Al-Ashari to represent Ali • Al-Ashari was not so bright • Ali had to consent • Mu’awiya chose Ibn Aas to represent him • Ibn Aas is very cunning • Both sides met a year later in a far away place to negotiate

  32. Arbitration II • The cunning Ibn Aas tricks Al-Ashari • Ibn Aas let Al-Ashari proclaim both Mu’awiya and Ali are to leave office then let people choose a Khalifa • Ibn Aas followed by saying: Ali should leave office but Mu’awiya is to stay in Power • Commotion was the result because of the lies and deception of Ibn Aas • They return disappointed and disillusioned

  33. Khariji • Khariji revolt against Ali • Ali argues with Khariji, many decide not to fight against Ali • 3000 Khariji insist of fighting Ali in Nahrawan, in Iraq • Ali Defeats Khariji in Nahrawan • Looks for the crippled man the Prophet foretold: They find him after 3 day search

  34. Nahjul Balaaghah • Nahjul Balaaghah is a collection of 54 Sermons, 212 sayings, and 48 letters by Ali • Collected by Al-Shareef al-Radhee • Full of Gems of Wisdom, it deals with numerous subjects: • Theology • History • Human Relationship • Taught all over in universities over the past centuries

  35. 30 years earlier, the Prophet said to Ali: The most evil of evildoers is the one who will wet this (beard) with the blood From this (forehead) إنَّ أشقى الأشـقـيين مَن يُخضِّبُ هذه بهذه   وأشار إلى لحيته ثم رأسه Prediction of the Prophet About Ali’s end

  36. Ibn Muljim, the Khariji • Ibn Muljim, one of the deviators (Khariji), • Along with 2 others planned to kill • Ali • Mu’awiya • Ibn Aas • These Khariji were involved in Nahrawan • They planned to avenge • Mu’awiya and Ibn Aas escaped being killed

  37. Ali assassinated • Ibn Muljim with a poisoned sword, was in hiding to kill Ali • Ali in Kufa Masjid had come to lead morning prayer, it was dark with poor visibility • It was the 19th of Ramadhan, Yr 40 Hijri • While Ali was in Sujood absorbed in prayer • Ibn Muljim jumped and hit Ali at the head

  38. Ali’s assassination I • Upon being so wounded Ali said: فزت ورب الكعبه I have won by the Lord of the Ka’ba • A lot of commotion ensued • Taken home Ali gave final advice to his son Al-Hasan, and other children • Two days later he died on Leilatul Qadr 21st of Ramadhan

  39. Ali’s assassination II • Ali’s last words were: فَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يَرَهُ وَمَن يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ شَرًّا يَرَهُ He with the slightest act of goodness will so be rewarded And he with the slightest act of evil deeds will so be rewarded

  40. Site of Ali’s Assassination

  41. Ali is buried • Ali was taken to Najaf for burial, many miles from Kufa • Burial place remained secret, known to family and few others • Years later Imam Al-Saadiq declared the whereabouts of the burial site • A tomb was established then a town arose around it • It became the center of visitation and learning

  42. Ali’s Shrine

  43. Ali’s tomb nowadays

  44. Ali the person • Imam Ali's self was molded completely by the Islamic ideals • Ali's personality was overpowering, he was an overachiever • Ali's brilliance and farsightedness were striking • Ali set to teach, inform, and help others learn about Islam • Ali was an idealist, and nothing could influence him to deviate from these ideals

  45. Ali the person II • Ali's ideals had to be in a head-on clash with the opportunist, demagogues, and power-hungry, • Ali stood in the face of deceit, duplicity, trickery, hypocrisy, greed, and treachery, of corrupt Benu Umayya • Ali was a compulsive perfectionist when it came to Islam • Ali stood for justice and freedom of choice, and the Holy Book and Sunnah

  46. Ali assassinated III • Ali lived to be 63 year old, just as the Prophet (pbuh) • He designated Al-Hasan as the 2nd Imam • He gave advice to Al-Hasan as written in Nahjul Balaaghah • After Al-Hasan’s agreement with Mu’awiya, the family returned to Medina to resume teaching Islam

  47. Imam Ali’s Shrine: Multitudes of visitors every year. Inside it reflects reverence that uniquely affects the heart. Ali’s Shrine in Najaf

  48. KhilaafahA birds-eye view • Khilaafah means the phenomenon of succession to Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) • This phenomenon is viewed in certain ways as explained in the next two slides:

  49. Khilaafah: A birds-eye view #1 • VIEW POINT I • The phenomenon, the circumstance, the mode of choice and selection of the Khalifas are to be taken as they are • This view is taken by the Sunni

  50. Khilaafah: A birds-eye view #2 • VIEW POINT II • The phenomenon would have been remarkably different had the wishes of Prophet Muhammad been observed. • This view is taken by the Shi’a