Earth Science, 10e - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

michelle-avery
earth science 10e n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Earth Science, 10e PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Earth Science, 10e

play fullscreen
1 / 55
Download Presentation
Earth Science, 10e
114 Views
Download Presentation

Earth Science, 10e

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Earth Science, 10e Edward J. Tarbuck & Frederick K. Lutgens

  2. GroundwaterChapter 3 (page 94) Earth Science, 6e Stan Hatfield and Ken Pinzke Southwestern Illinois College

  3. Sources of Earth’s water

  4. Distribution of fresh water in the hydrosphere

  5. Water, a renewable resource • Illustrates the circulation of Earth's water supply • Processes involved in the cycle • Precipitation • Evaporation • Infiltration • Runoff • Transpiration

  6. The hydrologic cycle

  7. Groundwater… • Is the largest freshwater reservoir for humans. (90% of our water usage) • Plays important geological roles • As an erosional agent, dissolving by groundwater produces • Sinkholes • Caverns • An equalizer of stream flow

  8. Features associated with subsurface water

  9. Groundwater characteristics • Aquifer (closed/open aquifer) • Aquitard or aquiclude • Zone of saturation • Zone of aeration • Zone of recharge/Zone of discharge • Water table

  10. Water beneath the surface (groundwater) • Porosity Percentage of pore spaces Determines how much groundwater can be stored • Permeability Ability to transmit water through connected pore spaces

  11. Springs • Are where ground surface and water table meet: • Springs • Hot springs • Water is 6-9ºC warmer than the mean air temperature of the locality • Heated by cooling of igneous rock • Geysers • Intermittent hot springs • Water turns to steam and erupts

  12. Hot Springs

  13. Old Faithful geyser in Yellowstone National Park

  14. Geysers formation

  15. Water beneath the surface (groundwater) • Features associated with groundwater • Wells • Pumping can cause a drawdown (lowering) of the water table • Pumping can form a cone of depression in the water table • Artesian wells • Water in the well rises higher than the initial groundwater level

  16. Formation of a cone of depression in the water table

  17. Artesian Well

  18. Pressure Surface

  19. An artesian well resulting from an inclined aquifer

  20. Treat groundwater as a nonrenewable resource • Environmental problems associated with groundwater: • Pollution (Farming, industrial, etc…) • Land subsidence caused by its withdrawal • Salt water contamination

  21. Salt water contamination

  22. Water beneath the surface (groundwater) • Geologic work of groundwater • Groundwater is often mildly acidic • Contains weak carbonic acid • Dissolves calcite in limestone • Caverns • Formed by dissolving rock beneath Earth's surface • Formed in the zone of saturation

  23. Water beneath the surface (groundwater) • Geologic work of groundwater • Caverns • Features found within caverns • Form in the zone of aeration • Composed of dripstone • Calcite deposited as dripping water evaporates • Common features include stalactites (hanging from the ceiling) and stalagmites (growing upward from the floor)

  24. Dripstone formations in Carlsbad Caverns National Park

  25. Water beneath the surface (groundwater) • Geologic work of groundwater • Karst topography • Formed by dissolving rock at, or near, Earth's surface • Common features • Sinkholes – surface depressions • Sinkholes form by dissolving bedrock and cavern collapse • Caves and caverns • Area lacks good surface drainage

  26. Development of karst topography

  27. Infrared image of karst topography in central Florida

  28. End of Chapter 3

  29. GROUNDWATER No Talking Please

  30. 1 - PERMEABILITY IS: • ABILITY TO STORE GROUNDWATER • ABILITY TO STOP GROUNDWATER • ABILITY TO TRANSMIT GROUNDWATER • NONE OF THE ABOVE

  31. 2 - WHICH ONE OF THESE IS A MAJOR POLLUTANT IN OUR NORTH FLORIDA GROUNDWATER? • PHOSPHATES • SULFATES • NITRATES • CARBONATES

  32. 3 - WHICH FORCE PUSHES THE GROUNDWATER THROUGH THE ROCK? • THE PRESSURE SURFACE • THE DARCY COEFFICIENT • THE HYDRAULIC GRADIENT • THE SURFACE TENSION

  33. 4 - WHICH ONE (S) OF THESE IS (ARE) PART OF KARST TOPOGRAPHY? • SINKHOLES • CAVES AND CAVERNS • SINKING CREEKS • ALL OF THESE

  34. 5 - AN AQUIFER IS • IMPERMEABLE ROCK ABOVE THE GROUNDWATER • POROUS AND PERMEABLE ROCK THAT CONTAINS THE GROUNDWATER • SAME AS AQUITARD • NONE OF THESE

  35. 6 - THE WATER TABLE IS: • TOP OF THE AQUIFER • TOP OF THE ZONE OF SATURATION • TOP OF THE ZONE OF AERATION • NONE OF THE ABOVE

  36. 7 - WHICH ZONE CONTAINS THE GROUNDWATER? • THE ZONE OF AERATION • THE CONE OF DEPRESSION • THE PRESSURE SURFACE • THE ZONE OF SATURATION

  37. 8 - THE LOWERING OF THE WATER TABLE DUE TO HEAVY PUMPING IS: • ZONE OF DEPRESSION • ZONE OF SATURATION • CONE OF DEPRESSION • CONE OF SATURATION

  38. 9 - WHICH ROCK IS AN AQUITARD? • SANDSTONE • LIMESTONE • CLAY • NONE OF THESE

  39. 10 - THE FLORIDIAN AQUIFER IS MADE OF WHAT ROCK? • CLAYSTONE • SANDSTONE • LIMESTONE • MILESTONE

  40. 11 - AN ARTESIAN WELL EXISTS WHEN: • IT LIES ABOVE THE PRESSURE SURFACE • IT LIES BELOW THE PRESSURE SURFACE • THE PRESSURE SURFACE IS ABSENT • NONE OF THESE

  41. 12 - HOW MUCH OF THE OCEAN WATERS ARE IN THE HYDROSPHERE? • 87% • 70% • 90% • 97%

  42. 13 - HOW MUCH GROUNDWATER DO WE USE IN FLORIDA? • 80% • 70% • 90% • 97%

  43. 14 - A ROCK ABILITY TO STORE WATER IS: • PERMEABILITY • SATURATION • POROSITY • AERATION

  44. 15 – Which one of these is not source of nitrates pollution in FL? • Farming • Animal waste • Septic Tank • Fossil fuel burning

  45. 16 - WHAT MAKES WATER FLOW? • 1. DISCHARGE • 2. RECHARGE • HYDRAULIC GRADIENT • DARCY’S FORCE

  46. 17 –In Florida sinkholes are pathways to the groundwater • True • False

  47. 18 – Fine particles that float on a stream surface are called • Bed load • Suspended load • Floating load

  48. 19 – Between stalagmites and stalagtites which ones hang from the ceiling? • Stalagtites • Stalagmites

  49. 20 - It is possible to check areas prone to sinkhole from satellite imaging using • Laser beam • Infrasound • Ultrasound • Infrared

  50. 21. Area where most of the runoff infiltrates the ground is called • Zone of saturation b. Zone of discharge c. Zone of recharge d. Cone of depression