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Non-milk feedings
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  1. Non-milk feedings • Solids • Beikost • Table foods

  2. What factors influence food choices, eating behaviors, and acceptance?

  3. Sociology of Food • Hunger • Social Status • Social Norms • Religion/Tradition • Nutrition/Health

  4. Sociology of Food • Food Choices • Availability • Cost • Taste • Value • Marketing Forces • Health • Significance

  5. Feeding Practices and Transitions Developmental Social Cultural Nutritional Public Health

  6. Development of Feeding Behavior

  7. Complementary Foods - definitions • “Any energy-containing foods that displace breastfeeding and reduce the intake of breast milk.” (AAP) • “any nutrient containing foods or liquids other than breastmilk given to young children during the periods of complementary feeding….[when] other foods or liquids are provided along with breastmilk.” (WHO) • “any foods or liquids other than human milk or formula that are fed during the first 12 months of life.” (Healthy Start Guidelines)

  8. Complementary Foods – The Nutrition issues • When are they needed? • What nutrients and foods are important? • When is the gut ready? • What about allergies? • What about juice?

  9. Feeding behavior of infants Gessell A, Ilg FL

  10. Developmental Changes • Oral cavity enlarges and tongue fills up less • Tongue grows differentially at the tip and attains motility in the larger oral cavity. • Elongated tongue can be protruded to receive and pass solids between the gum pads and erupting teeth for mastication. • Mature feeding is characterized by separate movements of the lip, tongue, and gum pads or teeth

  11. Development of Infant Feeding Skills • Birth • tongue is disproportionately large in comparison with the lower jaw: fills the oral cavity • lower jaw is moved back relative to the upper jaw, which protrudes over the lower by approximately 2 mm. • tongue tip lies between the upper and lower jaws. • "fat pad" in each of the cheeks: serves as prop for the muscles in the cheek, maintaining rigidity of the cheeks during suckling. • feeding pattern described as “suckling”

  12. Analytical framework for the Start Healthy Guidelines for Complementary foods (JADA, 2004)

  13. Foman S. Feeding Normal Infants: Rationale for Recommendations. JADA 101:1102 • “It is desirable to introduce soft-cooked red meats by age 5 to 6 months. “ • Iron used to fortify dry infant cereals in US are of low bioavailablity. (use wet pack or ferrous fumarate)

  14. The Basics from AAP: Timing of Introduction of Non-milk Feedings • Based on individual development, growth, activity level as well as consideration of social, cultural, psychological and economic considerations • Most infants ready at 4-6 months • Introduction of solids after 6 months may delay developmental milestones. • By 8-10 months most infants accept finely chopped foods.

  15. Some Issues: Foman, 1993 • “For the infant fed an iron-fortified formula, consumption of beikost is important in the transition from a liquid to a nonliquid diet, but not of major importance in providing essential nutrients.” • Breastfed infants: nutritional role of beikost is to supplement intakes of energy, protein, perhaps Ca and P. • Nutrient content of breastmilk is a compromise between maternal and infant needs. Most human societies supplement breastmilk early in life.

  16. Solids: Respiratory Symptoms • Forsyth (BMJ 1993) found increased incidence of persistent cough in infants fed solids between 14-26 weeks. • Orenstein (J Pediatr 1992) reported cough in infants given cereal as treatment for GER.

  17. Solids: Borrensen - (J Hum Lact. 1995) • Some studies find exclusive breastfeeding for 9 months supports adequate growth. • Iron needs have individual variation. • Drop in breastmilk production and consequent inadequate intake may be due to management errors

  18. Solids: Weight Gain • Weight gain: Forsyth (BMJ 1993) found early solids associated with higher weights at 8-26 weeks but not thereafter

  19. The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics - AAP, May 2001 • In the evaluation of children with malnutrition (overnutrition and undernutrition), the health care provider should determine the amount of juice being consumed. • In the evaluation of children with chronic diarrhea, excessive flatulence, abdominal pain, and bloating, the health care provider should determine the amount of juice being consumed. • In the evaluation of dental caries, the amount and means of juice consumption should be determined. • Pediatricians should routinely discuss the use of fruit juice and fruit drinks and should educate parents about differences between the two.

  20. The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics - AAP, May 2001 • Juice should not be introduced into the diet of infants before 6 months of age. • Infants should not be given juice from bottles or easily transportable covered cups that allow them to consume juice easily throughout the day. Infants should not be given juice at bedtime. • Intake of fruit juice should be limited to 4 to 6 oz/d for children 1 to 6 years old. For children 7 to 18 years old, juice intake should be limited to 8 to 12 oz or 2 servings per day. • Children should be encouraged to eat whole fruits to meet their recommended daily fruit intake. • Infants, children, and adolescents should not consume unpasteurized juice.

  21. The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics - AAP, May 2001 • Excessive juice consumption may be associated with malnutrition (overnutrition and undernutrition). • Excessive juice consumption may be associated with diarrhea, flatulence, abdominal distention, and tooth decay. • Unpasteurized juice may contain pathogens that can cause serious illnesses. • A variety of fruit juices, provided in appropriate amounts for a child's age, are not likely to cause any significant clinical symptoms. • Calcium-fortified juices provide a bioavailable source of calcium but lack other nutrients present in breast milk, formula, or cow's milk.

  22. Allergies: Areas of Recent Interest • Early introduction of dietary allergens and atopic response • atopy is allergic reaction/especially associated with IgE antibody • examples: atopic dermatitis (eczema), recurrent wheezing, food allergy, urticaria (hives) , rhinitis • Prevention of adverse reactions in high risk children

  23. Too Early diarrheal disease & risk of dehydration decreased breast-milk production Allergic sensitization? developmental concerns Too Late potential growth failure iron deficiency developmental concerns Some Considerations in Complementary feedings

  24. The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics - AAP, May 2001 • Conclusions • Recommendations

  25. The Use and Misuse of Fruit Juice in Pediatrics - AAP, May 2001 • Fruit juice offers no nutritional benefit for infants younger than 6 months. • Fruit juice offers no nutritional benefits over whole fruit for infants older than 6 months and children. • One hundred percent fruit juice or reconstituted juice can be a healthy part of the diet when consumed as part of a well-balanced diet. Fruit drinks, however\ are not nutritionally equivalent to fruit juice. • Juice is not appropriate in the treatment of dehydration or management of diarrhea.

  26. AAP: Specific Recommendations • Home prepared spinach, beets, turnips, carrots, collard greens not recommended due to high nitrate levels • Canned foods with high salt levels and added sugar are unsuitable for preparation of infant foods • Honey not recommended for infants younger than 12 months

  27. Complementary Foods: Healthy Start Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers (JADA, 2004) Based on an extensive evidence-based review of current science

  28. AAP: Specific Recommendations for Infant Foods • Start with introduction of single ingredient foods at weekly intervals. • Sequence of foods is not critical, iron fortified infant cereals are a good choice. • Home prepared foods are nutritionally equivalent to commercial products. • Water should be offered, especially with foods of high protein or electrolyte content.

  29. What? • After 6 months most breastfed infants need complementary foods to meet DRIs for energy, iron, vitamin D, vitamin B6, niacin, zinc, vitamin E, and others • In US Iron and vitamin D need special emphasis due to prevelance of deficiency. • Little room for foods with low energy density in the diets of infants

  30. When? • GI readiness: 3-4 months • Developmental readiness: varies, between 4 and 6 months • Nutritional needs beyond breastmilk: not before 6 months, after that varies • Need for variety and texture: within first year, order not important

  31. AAP: Specific Recommendations • Home prepared spinach, beets, turnips, carrots, collard greens not recommended due to high nitrate levels • Canned foods with high salt levels and added sugar are unsuitable for preparation of infant foods • Honey not recommended for infants younger than 12 months

  32. Juice Recommendations (after age 6 mos, 100% juice, limit to 6 oz/d) • 80% met guidelines • Those who met guidelines more likely to: • Be college graduates • Have higher incomes • Live in the west and in urban areas • Not be on WIC • Note: no racial/ethnic differences

  33. AAP: Specific Recommendations • Home prepared spinach, beets, turnips, carrots, collard greens not recommended due to high nitrate levels • Canned foods with high salt levels and added sugar are unsuitable for preparation of infant foods • Honey not recommended for infants younger than 12 months

  34. Juice Recommendations (after age 6 mos, 100% juice, limit to 6 oz/d) • 80% met guidelines • Those who met guidelines more likely to: • Be college graduates • Have higher incomes • Live in the west and in urban areas • Not be on WIC • Note: no racial/ethnic differences

  35. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (n=2,515) Journal of the American Dietetic Association, January 2006

  36. Delayed Complementary Feeding Until 4 months • 73% met guideline • Those who met guideline more likely to: • Be married • Have higher income • Be college grads • Be white or Hispanic compared to African American • Live in an urban area and/or live in the west • Not be on WIC

  37. How • Introducing new foods • Repeated exposures may be needed • No evidence for benefit to introducing foods in any sequence or rate • Meat and fortified cereals provide many nutrients identified as needed after 6 months.

  38. How • Safety issues: • Safe food handling for formula and expressed breast milk • Guidance about choking, lead poisoning, nonfood eating, high intakes of nitrates, nitrites and methylmurcury

  39. How? • Establish healthy feeding relationship • Recognize child’s developmental abilities • Balance child’s need for assistance with encouragement of self feeding • Allow the child to initiate and guide feeding interactions • Respond early and appropriately to hunger and satiety cues

  40. Sources of Energy: 6-11 Months

  41. Sources of Energy: 4-5 months

  42. Percentage of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers consuming desserts, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks on a given day  *Significantly different from non-Hispanics at P<.05.

  43. Analytical framework for the Start Healthy Guidelines for Complementary foods (JADA, 2004)

  44. What foods should be avoided to reduce food allergy risk? • No restrictions if not at risk for allergy. • If strong family history of food allergy: • Breastfeed as long as possible • No complementary foods until after 6 months • Delay introduction of foods with major allergens: eggs, milk, wheat, soy, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish.

  45. 12-24 mos, cont.

  46. Provide guidance consistent with family/child’s • Development • Temperament • Preferences • Culture • Nutritional needs

  47. Early Childhood Caries • AKA Baby Bottle Tooth Decay • Rampant infant caries that develop between one and three years of age

  48. Early Childhood Caries: Etiology • Bacterial fermentation of cho in the mouth produces acids that demineralize tooth structure • Infectious and transmissible disease that usually involves mutans streptococci • MS is 50% of total flora in dental plaque of infants with caries, 1% in caries free infants

  49. Early Childhood Caries: Etiology • Sleeping with a bottle enhances colonization and proliferation of MS • Mothers are primary source of infection • Mothers with high MS usually need extensive dental treatment