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Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering

Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering

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Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering

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  1. Recombinant DNA and Genetic Engineering Chapter 16

  2. Familial Hypercholesterolemia • Gene encodes protein that serves as cell’s LDL receptor • Two normal alleles for the gene keep blood level of LDLs low • Two mutated alleles lead to abnormally high cholesterol levels & heart disease

  3. Example of Gene Therapy • Woman with familial hypercholesterolemia • Part of her liver was removed • Virus used to insert normal gene for LDL receptor into cultured liver cells • Modified liver cells placed back in patient

  4. Results of Gene Therapy • Modified cells alive in woman’s liver • Blood levels of LDLs down 20 percent • No evidence of atherosclerosis • Cholesterol levels remain high • Remains to be seen whether procedure will prolong her life

  5. Genetic Changes • Humans have been changing the genetics of other species for thousands of years • Artificial selection of plants and animals • Natural processes also at work • Mutation, crossing over

  6. Genetic Engineering • Genes are isolated, modified, and inserted into an organism • Made possible by recombinant technology • Cut DNA up and recombine pieces • Amplify modified pieces

  7. Discovery of Restriction Enzymes • Hamilton Smith was studying how Haemophilus influenzae defend themselves from bacteriophage attack • Discovered bacteria have an enzyme that chops up viral DNA

  8. Specificity of Cuts • Restriction enzymes cut DNA at a specific sequence • Number of cuts made in DNA will depend on number of times the “target” sequence occurs

  9. Making Recombinant DNA 5’ G A A T T C 3’ C T T A A G one DNA fragment another DNA fragment 5’ G A A T T C 3’ 5’ C T T A A G 3’ In-text figurePage 254

  10. Making Recombinant DNA nick 5’ G A A T T C 3’ 3’ C T T A A G 5’ nick DNA ligase action G A A T T C C T T A A G In-text figurePage 254

  11. Using Plasmids • Plasmid is small circle of bacterial DNA • Foreign DNA can be inserted into plasmid • Forms recombinant plasmids • Plasmid is a cloning vector • Can deliver DNA into another cell

  12. Using Plasmids DNA fragments + enzymes recombinant plasmids host cells containing recombinant plasmids Figure 16.4Page 255

  13. Amplifying DNA • Fragments can be inserted into fast-growing microorganisms • Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)

  14. Polymerase Chain Reaction • Sequence to be copied is heated • Primers are added and bind to ends of single strands • DNA polymerase uses free nucleotides to create complementary strands • Doubles number of copies of DNA

  15. DNA heated to 90°– 94°C Primers added to base-pair with ends Mixture cooled; base-pairing of primers and ends of DNA strands DNA polymerases assemble new DNA strands Polymerase Chain Reaction Double-stranded DNA to copy Stepped Art Figure 16.6Page 256

  16. Mixture cooled; base-pairing between primers and ends of single DNA strands DNA polymerase action again doubles number of identical DNA fragments Polymerase Chain Reaction Mixture heated again; makes all DNA fragments unwind Stepped Art Figure 16.6Page 256

  17. DNA Fingerprints • Unique array of DNA fragments • Inherited from parents in Mendelian fashion • Even full siblings can be distinguished from one another by this technique

  18. Tandem Repeats • Short regions of DNA that differ substantially among people • Many sites in genome where tandem repeats occur • Each person carries a unique combination of repeat numbers

  19. Gel Electrophoresis • DNA is placed at one end of a gel • A current is applied to the gel • DNA molecules are negatively charged and move toward positive end of gel • Smaller molecules move faster than larger ones

  20. Analyzing DNA Fingerprints • DNA is stained or made visible by use of a radioactive probe • Pattern of bands is used to: • Identify or rule out criminal suspects • Identify bodies • Determine paternity

  21. Genome Sequencing • 1995 - Sequence of bacterium Haemophilus influenzae determined • Automated DNA sequencing now main method • Draft sequence of entire human genome determined in this way

  22. Gene Libraries • Bacteria that contain different cloned DNA fragments • Genomic library • cDNA library

  23. Engineered Proteins • Bacteria can be used to grow medically valuable proteins • Insulin, interferon, blood-clotting factors • Vaccines

  24. Cleaning Up the Environment • Microorganisms normally break down organic wastes and cycle materials • Some can be engineered to break down pollutants or to take up larger amounts of harmful materials

  25. The Ti plasmid • Researchers replace tumor-causing genes with beneficial genes • Plasmid transfers these genes to cultured plant cells plant cell foreign gene in plasmid Figure 16.11Page 261

  26. Engineered Plants • Cotton plants that display resistance to herbicide • Aspen plants that produce less lignin and more cellulose • Tobacco plants that produce human proteins • Mustard plant cells that produce biodegradable plastic

  27. First Engineered Mammals • Experimenters used mice with hormone deficiency that leads to dwarfism • Fertilized mouse eggs were injected with gene for rat growth hormone • Gene was integrated into mouse DNA • Engineered mice were 1-1/2 times larger than unmodified littermates

  28. Cloning Dolly 1997 - A sheep cloned from an adult cell • Nucleus from mammary gland cell was inserted into enucleated egg • Embryo implanted into surrogate mother • Sheep is genetic replica of animal from which mammary cell was taken

  29. Designer Cattle • Genetically identical cattle embryos can be grown in culture • Embryos can be genetically modified • create resistance to mad cow disease • engineer cattle to produce human serum albumin for medical use

  30. The Human Genome Initiative Goal - Map the entire human genome • Initially thought by many to be a waste of resources • Process accelerated when Craig Ventner used bits of cDNAs as hooks to find genes • Sequencing was completed ahead of schedule in early 2001

  31. Genomics • Structural genomics: actual mapping and sequencing of genomes of individuals • Comparative genomics: concerned with possible evolutionary relationships of groups of organisms

  32. Using Human Genes • Even with gene in hand it is difficult to manipulate it to advantage • Viruses usually used to insert genes into cultured human cells but procedure has problems • Very difficult to get modified genes to work where they should

  33. Can Genetically Engineered Bacteria “Escape”? • Genetically engineered bacteria are designed so that they cannot survive outside lab • Genes are included that will be turned on in outside environment, triggering death

  34. Ethical Issues • Who decides what should be “corrected” through genetic engineering? • Should animals be modified to provide organs for human transplants? • Should humans be cloned?