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## PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Classroom Instruction' - micheal

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Direct Instruction: Presentation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Direct Instruction: Presentation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Direct Instruction: Practice of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

...Name and define the specific events of instruction that would be included in your model of direct instruction and give an example of a teacher behavior and a student behavior for each event.

Developed by W. Huitt (1998)

Using this criteria as the desired student outcome, one set of models, labeled direct or explicit instruction (Rosenshine, 1995), has developed overwhelming research support in the past 25 years.

Rosenshine, B. (1995). Advances in research on instruction. The Journal of Educational Research, 88(5), 262-268.

Direct Instruction

In the U. S. the most often used measures of student learning are scores on standardized tests of basic skills.

Direct Instruction of models, labeled direct or explicit instruction (Rosenshine, 1995), has developed overwhelming research support in the past 25 years.

Rosenshine’s model of direct instruction includes seven events (specific teacher or student activities):

1. Provide overview.

2. Review, checking previous day's work.

3. Present new content & skills.

4. Initial student practice, checking for understanding, feedback & correctives.

5. Independent practice.

6. Frequent tests.

7. Homework; weekly and monthly reviews.

Direct Instruction of models, labeled direct or explicit instruction (Rosenshine, 1995), has developed overwhelming research support in the past 25 years.

These are very similar to the events suggested by Slavin (1994):

Slavin, R. (1994). Educational psychology (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

1. State learning objective and orient students.

2. Review prerequisites.

3. Present new material.

4. Conduct learning probes.

5. Provide independent practice.

6. Assess performance and provide feedback.

7. Provide distributed practice and review.

It should be noted that both Rosenshine and Slavin, as well as other researchers such as Gagne and Briggs (1979), Good and Grouws (1979), and Hunter (1982) have looked at the same research literature and generated comparable, but different, models of direct instruction.

Gagne, R., & Briggs, L. (1979). Principles of instructional design (2nd ed.). New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.

Good, T., & Grouws, D. (1979). The Missouri Mathematics Effectiveness Project: An experimental study in fourth-grade classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology, 71, 355-362.

Hunter, M. (1982). Mastery teaching. El Sequndo, CA: TIP Publications.

Direct Instruction

The Transactional Model of Direct instruction, an adaptation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Caldwell, J., Huitt, W., & French, V. (1981). Research-based classroom modifications for improving student engaged time. In D. Helms, A. Graeber, J. Caldwell, & W. Huitt (Eds.). Leader's guide for student engaged time. Philadelphia: Research for Better Schools, Inc.

Direct Instruction

However, all of these models have a common viewpoint that the teacher should be the focus of the process of instruction.

A Transactional Model of Direct Instruction of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

The transactional model includes four major categories of instructional events:

- Presentation

- Practice

- Assessment & Evaluation

- Monitoring & Feedback

A Transactional Model of Direct Instruction of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Each category includes specific events of instruction that incorporates both a teacher behavior and a student behavior for that event.

A Transactional Model of Direct Instruction of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Presentation includes five events, three of which are considered together in a subcategory labeled “Overview.”

- Overview

- Review

- What

- Why

- Explanation

- Demonstration

Direct Instruction: Presentation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Overview: Review

Provides an opportunity for students to recall &/or examine what they have already learned in preparation for current lesson

Teacher

Focus on prerequisite skills and concepts; check homework; link the lesson to previous ones; review the previous lesson

Student

Direct Instruction: Presentation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Overview: What

Presents the specific concept(s) and skill(s) to be learned

Teacher

Read a stated objective for the lesson; hear what the topic of the lesson is; see what they will be able to do at the end of a lesson

Student

Direct Instruction: Presentation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Overview: Why

States a reason or a need for learning the skill(s) or concept(s)

Teacher

See how the lesson is related to the real world; relate the lesson to their own interests; discuss how the skill

or concept can be applied to other

subject areas

Student

Explanation

Develops or explains the concepts and skills to be learned

Teacher

Hear an explanation; use manipulative materials; have class discussions; watch videos; read explanations in textbooks; interact with computer

Student

Demonstration

Probes students as to their initial understanding of concepts and skills

Teacher

Answer teacher questions; verbalize understandings; model demonstrated processes; generate examples and non-examples of a concept

Student

Direct Instruction: Practice of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Practice includes three events:

- Guided Practice

- Independent Practice

- Periodic Review

Direct Instruction: Practice of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Guided Practice

Closely supervises the students as they begin to develop increased proficiency by completing one or two short tasks at a time

Teacher

Read a paragraph aloud; complete one or two math problems; complete an activity on the board, while others do the same activity at their seats

Student

Direct Instruction: Practice of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Independent Practice

Allows students to work with little or no teacher interaction

Teacher

Complete seatwork assignments; complete homework assignments; play games related to specific skills or concepts

Student

Periodic Review

Provides students opportunity to have distributed practice on previously covered content and skills

Teacher

Demonstrate retention of previously learned concepts and skills

Student

Direct Instruction: Assessment & Evaluation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Assessment and evaluation includes two events:

- Daily success

- Mastery

Direct Instruction: Assessment & Evaluation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Daily Success

Checks students work each day and offers corrective instruction as necessary

Teacher

Complete independent work at or above a given level of proficiency

Student

Direct Instruction: Assessment & Evaluation of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Mastery

Checks students work at the end of each unit of instruction

Teacher

Demonstrate knowledge and application of concepts and skills at or above a given level of proficiency

Student

Direct Instruction: Monitoring & Feedback of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Monitoring and feedback also includes two events:

- Cues and prompts

- Corrective feedback

Direct Instruction: Monitoring & Feedback of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Cues & Prompts

Provides students with signals and reminders designed to sustain the learning activity and to hold students accountable

Teacher

Attend to signals and/or reminders continue working on assigned activity

Student

Direct Instruction: Monitoring & Feedback of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

Corrective Feedback

Tells students whether their answers are correct or incorrect and why

Teacher

Read correct answers aloud; write correct solutions to math problems on board; support answers to reading comprehension questions by reading aloud from the text

Student

Direct Instruction of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

In general, all direct instruction models have the following common principles:

- More teacher-directed instruction (> 50%) and less seatwork (< 50%)

- Active presentation of information (could be by teacher, computer, another student)

- Clear organization of presentation

- Step-by-step progression from subtopic to subtopic (based on task analysis)

Direct Instruction of a model developed by Caldwell, Huitt & French (1981), focuses additionally on the interactions of teachers and students at each event of instruction.

In general, all direct instruction models have the following common principles:

- Use many examples, visual prompts, and demonstrations.

- Constant assessment of student understanding (before, during and after the lesson).

- Alter pace of instruction based on assessment of student understanding

- Effective use of time and maintaining students' attention

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