posc 3315 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
POSC 3315 PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
POSC 3315

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 28

POSC 3315 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 88 Views
  • Uploaded on

POSC 3315. W12-2. History. Why history matters Path dependence What it means How it works “Off-path” changes History shapes but doesn’t determine. Think of hyperexecutives – Drake Once established continued if worked Applies to other institutions Institutions – what they are

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'POSC 3315' - miach


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
history
History
  • Why history matters
  • Path dependence
    • What it means
    • How it works
    • “Off-path” changes
    • History shapes but doesn’t determine
slide3

Think of hyperexecutives– Drake

    • Once establishedcontinued if worked
    • Applies to other institutions
  • Institutions – what they are
    • Durable patterns of interactions
    • Formal ones have legal basis + physical presence + table of organization
    • Not so with informal ones
slide4

Want to know

    • How they started
    • How they developed
    • How they keep going
    • How they change
  • Have a historical trajectory or path
another example
Another example
  • Fragment theory
  • Reconquest: What:?
    • Civil + religious war: Christians v. Muslims
    • In Spain, 8th to 15th C.; ends in 13th in Portugal
    • Christians won
slide7

Significance

    • Defining issue in Spanish history
      • Less so in Portugal
  • Affected
    • Organization of state and society
    • Outlook: values and beliefs
    • Role of religion
    • Thinking about colonizing the Americas
slide8

Was about capturing land and people

    • Putting non-Xtians to work for conquerers
  • Military model
  • Administrative procedures
    • Encomienda and Repartimiento
  • Values
    • Role of religion
    • Proper work for Christian gentlemen
slide9

Set pattern for 250+ yrs of colonial administration

    • Changed somewhat in mid-18th C.
  • Portugal was somewhat different
    • Less a national project: more foreign knights
    • Ended earlier  Portugal turns to exploration and trade
slide10

Colonial politics

  • Not like British NA
    • We had legislatures, representative govt, from outset
    • Appointed governor + elected legislature
      • Franchise varied
    • Local govts
slide11

Spanish and Portuguese

    • No representative institutions
    • Local administrations (cabilidos) weaker than in BNA
  • At independence, 1776, BNA had
    • Experience with self-govt + autochthonous political class used to governing
  • Ibero-America did not
slide12

What resulted

  • In NA, USA, eventual civil war, 1861-65
    • But also lots of compromises and attempts to find peaceful solutions
  • In NA, CDA, post-1867, keep bumping along, finding compromises
  • In LA: most countries enter extended periods of instability
slide13
Why?
  • British North America: CDA & USA
    • When: over a century later (1607)
    • Different econ, pol & social contexts + different metro institutions
    • Circumstances: religious freedom/dissent
    • British politics in 17th and 18th centuries v. Spanish or Portuguese in 15th and 16thcenturies
other examples nicaragua
Other examples: Nicaragua
  • General shape of history
    • As colony
    • Independence, 1821, to 1858
      • Nearly constant conflict and civil war. Why?
    • 1858-1893: Peace, order and good govt in the Switzerland of Central America
    • 1893-1909: dictatorship
    • 1909-1934: Civil War, then insurgency;
      • USMC occupation, 1912-1933
slide15

1936-79: Dictatorship; 2 generations of Somozas

  • 1979-90: Revolutionary government, FSLN
    • Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional
  • 1990-2000: conservative elected govts
  • 2000: FSLN-Liberal Pact
  • 2006-present: FSLN again as elected govt
    • Hegemonic tendencies
slide16

How can we describe Nica’s historic political path?

  • What should we look for in the future, assuming no more big, off-path changes?
slide17
Cuba
  • A bit of history
    • Spanish colony until 1898
    • Then US semi-colony due to Platt Amendment, 1902-1933
    • Although there were elections since 1901, few were free – 1940 for one
    • Main form of government dictatorial
slide18

Dominant theme is Cuban politics anti-imperialism

    • First Spanish
    • Then American
  • History, pre-1959 
    • External domination + dictatorship
  • Reasons for Castro’s revolution
slide19

Look more at Castro later

  • For now, reflect on Cuba’s political trajectory
  • Colony to semi-colony to foreign dominated to independent but dependent on foreign assistance to now
  • Where is it likely to go?
readings
Readings
  • Both
    • Role of institutions
    • Ask if personal rule = institutionalized
    • Role of structural factors
    • Role of contextual/conjunctural factors
    • How they use history, especially national histories
drake
Drake
  • His objective: Show the democratic side of LA history
    • Lots of experiments, few successes
    • But didn’t lag far behind historic dems in experiments (or Central/Southern Europe in practice, pre-WWII)
    • Faced same problem as many others: reconcile political equality w/soc-ec inequality
slide22

Sees two broad types

    • Protected democracy
    • Popular
    • Neither wanted political equality + procedures – NA/GB/WE model
    • Either could be paternalistic or authoritarian
    • Popular likely personalistic+ saw democracy = building solidarity & bringing equality
    • Not about forms & processes
slide23

Focus is institutions + civil liberties

    • Why this matters
      • Debate over how to define democracy
      • Procedural; input
      • Results; output
      • His partially bridges the two
    • Historical – tracing trajectories – how we got where we are
slide24

To note: causes of democracy

    • The nature of the elites & lack of elite consensus
    • Subordinate classes: only mentions labour;
      • In CDA/USA farmers drove early democratization
  • Oligarchic competition
    • What this means
    • Why it matters: fairly common pattern
lewis
Lewis
  • Doesn’t define authoritarianism
  • Currently
    • Any non-democratic regime – Broad
    • What this connotes
      • Govt unaccountable; weak no rule of law
      • Govt can’t be changed by peaceful means
      • Govt likely to rely on forceful coercion
      • Govern the people; not govt by the people
slide26

PL emphasizes personal rule

    • Often w/charismatic leader
    • V. Important in LA; as now in Africa; lost a bit I mid-east
  • His ch. 1 lists some causes of authoritarian rule in Latin America
    • Overdetermined
slide27

His list:

    • undemocratic culture—criollo dominance; Independence: lots of violence, lots of armed men; post-independence breakdown of order: politics changed, not society
  • Caudillos
    • Highly personalized rule
    • Not too attentive to party labels/ideas
slide28

How they ruled

    • Got stuff to distribute to followers; violent political bosses
    • No institutionalization. Why?
    • But you can only steal so much
    • Eventually need stable govt to get taxes for patronage
    • But this ends caudillo rule and demands new skills