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If you do not have the study guide for the final, please get one from me after class. THE MONGOL WORLD EMPIRE I. Pattern of nomadic invasions A. Equilibrium between settled civilization and nomads is upset.
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I. Pattern of nomadic invasions
A. Equilibrium between settled civilization and nomads is
(1) Drought that threatens nomads’ grazing lands
(2) Nomad overpopulation
(3) Nomads are pushed by strong empire (typically Chinese).
B. Nomads are typically more militarily effective than
settled civ., are therefore able to invade.
W. and S. from C. Asia.
A. Last major wave before Mongols was Seljuks, 11th c.
B. Turkic nomads are connected to Islamic and Chinese empires
through trade, military service (as mamluks or mercenaries), etc.
C. Tempted by grazing land and trade
plate, Iran, 12th c.
(a) The horde = mobile army of horsemen, accompanied by
(b) The yurt = Mongol mobile home
“circle the wagons” tactic
(3) Mongol terror tactics –
wholesale massacres of
resulting partially from
Turkish composite (short) bow
begin to expand late 12th c. because of OVERPOPULATION.
Jochi Ögödei Jagadai Tolui
↓ Great Khan C. ASIA
HORDE Möngke KhubilaiHülegü
(RUSSIA) Great Khan CHINAIRAN/IRAQ
conquered conquered Abbasids/
Song by 1279 Seljuks by 1258
1270-1368 c. 1260-1349
Genghis’ grandsons (Hülegü and Khubilai) benefit from weakened Abbasid caliphate and Song China.
IV. Abbasid empire in the early 13th c.
A. Caliph a religious figurehead
B. Political/military power held by autonomous regional rulers,
C. Irrigation works neglected→floods, salinization
Mustansiriyya Theological Academy
(c. 1233), Baghdad
(1) Murder Abbasid royal family
(2) Survivor escapes to Cairo, recognized by Mamluk sultanate
(former military slaves of Saladin, ruled Egypt, Syria, western
Arabia 1250-1517). Mamluks stop Mongol advance in 1260.
Mamluk theological academy
with Crusader church doorway
A. Cultural flowering as reflection of political ineffectiveness??
The Song had achieved great heights of cultural production,
e.g., in landscape painting and porcelain, despite their
Confucian cultural conservatism.
C. Southern Song fought Mongols for decades (1234-79) until
conquered by Khubilai Khan.
A. Khubilai Khan (founder of Yuan dynasty) in Beijing (Daidu):
sinified court, Chinese bureaucrats
computer recreation of Daidu
B.Il-khans (dynasty founded by Hülegü) in Iran/Iraq convert to Islam
late 13th c., employ Iranian scribes.
pages from the Iranian Book of Kings prepared at the Il-khan court in NW Iran, c. 1308
tomb of Il-khan ruler Oljeytu (late 13th c.)
A. Too big: 4 separate khanates
Golden Horde allies with Mamluk sultanate against Il-khans.
whole→fragmentation by 14th c.:
(1) China: Yuan dynasty corrupt and ineffective→regional rebellions
(2) Iran/Iraq/C. Asia: many kingdoms ruled by Mongol descendants
(3) Russia: Golden Horde loses ground to Russian nobility.
Prince Alexander Nevskii (ca. 1220-63) advances Russian culture
under Mongol rule (Bulliet, p. 349).
A. TIMUR (TAMERLANE, 1336-1405), descendant of Genghis on
mother’s side, founds empire in C. Asia and Iran.
Timur’s mausoleum in Samarkand,
(1) Ruler gives protection to subjects in return for tribute (taxes).
(2) Military commanders receive rights to land tenure (overseeing
land, collecting taxes) in return for raising troops for ruler’s army.
Style of rule adopted by:
Ottoman Empire (1299-1923) Mughal Empire, N. India
Green Mosque, İznik (Nicaea)
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