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If you do not have the study guide for the final, please get one from me after class. THE MONGOL WORLD EMPIRE I. Pattern of nomadic invasions A. Equilibrium between settled civilization and nomads is upset.

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slide2

THE MONGOL WORLD EMPIRE

I. Pattern of nomadic invasions

A. Equilibrium between settled civilization and nomads is

upset.

(1) Drought that threatens nomads’ grazing lands

(2) Nomad overpopulation

(3) Nomads are pushed by strong empire (typically Chinese).

B. Nomads are typically more militarily effective than

settled civ., are therefore able to invade.

slide3

II. Mongols are one of last waves of Turkic nomads to move

W. and S. from C. Asia.

A. Last major wave before Mongols was Seljuks, 11th c.

B. Turkic nomads are connected to Islamic and Chinese empires

through trade, military service (as mamluks or mercenaries), etc.

C. Tempted by grazing land and trade

Seljuk ceramic

plate, Iran, 12th c.

slide4

D. Mongol military advantages

(1) Mobility

(a) The horde = mobile army of horsemen, accompanied by

entire population

(b) The yurt = Mongol mobile home

“circle the wagons” tactic

slide5

(2) Horsemanship, archery

(3) Mongol terror tactics –

“blitzkriegs” involving

wholesale massacres of

populations (perhaps

resulting partially from

Mongol overpopulation)

Turkish composite (short) bow

stirrups→

slide6

III. MONGOLS were a quasi-Turkic population from Mongolia,

begin to expand late 12th c. because of OVERPOPULATION.

slide7

TEMÜJIN (1162-1227) creates Mongol confederation under rule

  • of his clan.
  • B. Receives title CHINGGIS (GENGHIS) KHAN = “Supreme Ruler”
  • C. His armies sweep across C. Asia and into N. China.
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THE FAMILY OF GENGHIS KHAN

GENGHIS (1162-1227)

Jochi Ögödei Jagadai Tolui

↓ Great Khan C. ASIA

GOLDEN

HORDE Möngke KhubilaiHülegü

(RUSSIA) Great Khan CHINAIRAN/IRAQ

conquered conquered Abbasids/

Song by 1279 Seljuks by 1258

↓ ↓

Yuan dynastyIl-khans

1270-1368 c. 1260-1349

slide9

Jochi

(son)

Jagadai

(son)

Khubilai

(grandson)

Hülegü

(grandson)

slide10

Genghis’ grandsons (Hülegü and Khubilai) benefit from weakened Abbasid caliphate and Song China.

IV. Abbasid empire in the early 13th c.

A. Caliph a religious figurehead

B. Political/military power held by autonomous regional rulers,

including Seljuks

C. Irrigation works neglected→floods, salinization

Mustansiriyya Theological Academy

(c. 1233), Baghdad

slide11

D. Mongols under Hülegü sack Baghdad, 1258.

(1) Murder Abbasid royal family

(2) Survivor escapes to Cairo, recognized by Mamluk sultanate

(former military slaves of Saladin, ruled Egypt, Syria, western

Arabia 1250-1517). Mamluks stop Mongol advance in 1260.

Mamluk theological academy

with Crusader church doorway

slide12

V. Song China in the early 13th c.

A. Cultural flowering as reflection of political ineffectiveness??

The Song had achieved great heights of cultural production,

e.g., in landscape painting and porcelain, despite their

Confucian cultural conservatism.

slide13

B. 12th c. JURCHEN invasion had forced Song to retreat to south.

C. Southern Song fought Mongols for decades (1234-79) until

conquered by Khubilai Khan.

slide14

VI. Mongol cultural influence not that great

A. Khubilai Khan (founder of Yuan dynasty) in Beijing (Daidu):

sinified court, Chinese bureaucrats

computer recreation of Daidu

slide15

B.Il-khans (dynasty founded by Hülegü) in Iran/Iraq convert to Islam

late 13th c., employ Iranian scribes.

pages from the Iranian Book of Kings prepared at the Il-khan court in NW Iran, c. 1308

slide16

C. Cultural flowering in both Yuan China and Il-khan Iran

Yuan dynasty

vase

tomb of Il-khan ruler Oljeytu (late 13th c.)

Sulaymaniye, Iran

slide17

VII. Ultimate failure of Mongol empire

A. Too big: 4 separate khanates

Golden Horde allies with Mamluk sultanate against Il-khans.

slide18

B. Still run as nomadic state, with power vested in ruling clan as a

whole→fragmentation by 14th c.:

(1) China: Yuan dynasty corrupt and ineffective→regional rebellions

(2) Iran/Iraq/C. Asia: many kingdoms ruled by Mongol descendants

and vassals

(3) Russia: Golden Horde loses ground to Russian nobility.

Prince Alexander Nevskii (ca. 1220-63) advances Russian culture

under Mongol rule (Bulliet, p. 349).

Alexander Nevskii

slide19

VIII. Mongol legacy

A. TIMUR (TAMERLANE, 1336-1405), descendant of Genghis on

mother’s side, founds empire in C. Asia and Iran.

Timur’s mausoleum in Samarkand,

Uzbekistan

slide20

B. Military patronage state

(1) Ruler gives protection to subjects in return for tribute (taxes).

(2) Military commanders receive rights to land tenure (overseeing

land, collecting taxes) in return for raising troops for ruler’s army.

Style of rule adopted by:

Ottoman Empire (1299-1923) Mughal Empire, N. India

(1526-1858)

Green Mosque, İznik (Nicaea)