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Chapter 10: Becoming Who We Are: The Development of Self, Gender, and Morality. The Development of Gender. By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook). The Development of Gender. Sex – The male or female physical and biological characteristics of the body.

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the development of gender

Chapter 10: Becoming Who We Are: The Development of Self, Gender, and Morality

The Development of Gender

By Kati Tumaneng (for Drs. Cook and Cook)

the development of gender2
The Development of Gender
  • Sex – The male or female physical and biological characteristics of the body.
  • Gender – All the physical, cognitive, and behavioral traits that characterize people of one sex.
  • Gender role – The social expectations for each sex within a particular culture. Sometimes called a sex role.
  • Gender concept – The understanding that a person’s sex is a permanent feature and cannot be altered through changes in surface features like hair or clothing.
  • Sex-typed behavior – Behavior that matches the gender-role expectations of a culture.

More definitions: http://www.transgender.org/transcend/guide/sec131.htm

how do boys and girls differ
How Do Boys and Girls Differ?
  • In most areas, the similarities far outweigh the differences.
  • Cognitive Skills
    • Largest and most consistent differences are in verbal, language, and certain spatial skills.
    • Verbal skills favor girls.
    • Spatial skills favor boys.
    • Math – Only consistent differences in elementary school favor girls for computation and for grades; superior performance ends around age 15; by adolescence boys are favored in math problem solving (Halpern, 2000).

Compare gender on Nation’s Report Card:

http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nrc/reading_math_2005/s0010.asp?printver

how do boys and girls differ4
How Do Boys and Girls Differ?
  • Social Behavior and Personality Traits
    • Boys show higher activity levels from infancy onward.
    • Girls perform better on tasks involving flexibility and fine-motor coordination.
how do boys and girls differ5
How Do Boys and Girls Differ?
  • Social Behavior and Personality Traits
    • Boys more physically aggressive and assertive (Feingold, 1994).
    • Girls show more relational aggression (Crick & Grotpeter, 1995).
    • No consistent differences in prosocial behavior or emotions.
the development of gender concepts and sex typed behaviors
The Development of Gender Concepts and Sex-Typed Behaviors
  • Gender intensification – The process of conforming more and more closely to gender stereotypes in behavior, emotions, and activities.
  • The Development of Sexual Orientation
    • Begin to experience feelings of sexual attraction sometime during late childhood or early adolescence.
    • Sexual orientation – Tendency to be attracted to people of the same sex (homosexual orientation), of the opposite sex (heterosexual orientation), or of both sexes (bisexual orientation).
    • Nature or nurture debate

More info on sexual orientation:

http://www.apa.org/topics/sbehaviorsub1.html

the development of gender concepts and sex typed behaviors7
The Development of Gender Concepts and Sex-Typed Behaviors
  • The Development of Sexual Orientation (cont.)
    • Development of homosexual identity (Troiden, 1988)
      • Stage 1 – Sensitization
      • Stage 2 – Identity confusion
      • Stage 3 – Identity assumption
      • Stage 4 – Commitment
    • Possible influences: Genetic, prenatal hormone levels, some areas of brain, environment.
    • “Exotic becomes erotic” theory (D. J. Bem, 1996, 2000) – Adolescents begin to see “exotic,” or very different, attributes and behaviors as erotic, or sexually attractive.

More on Bem:

http://www.news.cornell.edu/Chronicle/96/8.29.96/sex_orientation.html

the development of gender concepts and sex typed behaviors8
The Development of Gender Concepts and Sex-Typed Behaviors
  • During 1970s, researchers began to think of masculinity and femininity as two separate dimensions (Bem, 1974; Constantinople, 1973).
  • Individual can possess masculine or feminine qualities to different degrees.
  • Androgyny – Possession of many masculine as well as many feminine psychological characteristics.
dimensions of masculinity and femininity
Dimensions of Masculinity and Femininity

(Bem, 1974, p. 155; Bem, 1985, p. 195)

theories of gender development
Theories of Gender Development
  • According to Freud’s theory, children will not show sex-typed behavior before the phallic stage (age 4-5), but many studies indicate that sex-typed behavior and preferences begin well before age 4.
  • Biological Approaches
    • Emphasize genetic basis for gender differences and focus on effects of hormones during prenatal development and at puberty.
    • Brain lateralization – The degree to which one hemisphere of the brain is active in a given task.
theories of gender development11
Theories of Gender Development
  • Socialization Approaches
    • Examine differences in social environment boys and girls experience.
    • Two major influences: direct and indirect reinforcement and observational learning.
theories of gender development12
Theories of Gender Development
  • Cognitive Approaches
    • Emphasize the child’s developing understanding of gender and the impact of that understanding on behavior.
    • Based on Piaget’s theory, Kohlberg’s cognitive developmental theory proposed that knowledge of gender and gender-related behavior constitutes a cognitive category and develops in the same way as knowledge of any other cognitive category (Kohlberg, 1966).
      • Gender identity (by 2.5 years)
      • Gender stability (by 4-5 years)
      • Gender constancy (by 6-7 years)
theories of gender development13
Theories of Gender Development
  • Cognitive Approaches (cont.)
    • Gender schema theory – The theory that gender knowledge consists of a gender schema, a cognitive network of gender-related information that organizes gender knowledge and guides expectations and behaviors.

More info on theories of gender development:

http://www.psy.pdx.edu/PsiCafe/Areas/Developmental/GenderDev/#Theories

slide14
Charts on Slide 4: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 398). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Charts on Slide 5: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 399). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Picture on Slide 8: from http://www.planetout.com/popcornq/movienews/oldnews/deep_hollywood_060697.html, retrieved March 9, 2006.
  • Charts on Slide 9: from Cook, J. L., & Cook, G. (2005). Child development: Principles and perspectives (1st ed.) (p. 396). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • All other images retrieved from Microsoft PowerPoint Clip Art.