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Presentation Transcript
separating mixtures
Separating Mixtures
  • Some mixtures like soil and water (and sand and water) can be separated through a filter
questions
Questions
  • 1. How can you tell the difference between a mixture and a compound?
  • 2. Why do water and oil separate?
  • 3. Are the properties of a compound always the same? Are the properties of a mixture always the same?
solution
Solution
  • Homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances that are evenly distributed (one is dissolved in another)
solute
Solute
  • Substance being dissolved
solvent
Solvent
  • Substance that dissolves other materials
  • Water is the universal solvent
questions name the solvent and the solute s
Questions- Name the solvent and the solute(s)
  • 1. Carbonated water
  • 2. lemonade
  • 3. Air (78% N, 21% O)
  • 4. Brass (60 % copper, 40 % zinc)
dissolving
Dissolving
  • The process of mixing a solute in a solvent
  • To make a solution, a solute must dissolve in a solvent.
  • The particles of the solvent must be able to separate the particles of the solute and occupy the intervening spaces.
dissolving9
Dissolving
  • Polar solvent molecules can effectively separate the molecules of other polar substances. This happens when the positive end of a solvent molecule approaches the negative end of a solute molecule. A force of attraction then exists between the 2 molecules. The solute molecule is pulled into solution when the force overcomes the attractive force between the solute molecule and its neighboring solute molecule.
solubility
Solubility
  • Is the maximum amount of solute that will dissolve in a given volume of water at a given temperature
  • Soluble- can be dissolved in a particular solvent
  • Insoluble- does not dissolve in a particular solvent
  • Factors that effect solubility:
    • Nature of solute & solvent
    • Temperature
    • Pressure (for solids & liquids no effect, for gaseous solutes an increase in pressure increases solubility and a decrease in pressure decreases solubility)
rate of solution
Rate of Solution
  • Measure of how fast a substance dissolves
  • Factors:
    • Size of particles (smaller particles dissolve faster)
    • Stirring
    • Amount of solute already dissolved
    • Temperature ( T for solid and liquid rate)
describing solutions
Describing Solutions
  • Can contain various amounts of solute.
  • Dilute- solutions containing small amounts of solute (weak sweet tea)
  • Concentrated- large amounts of solute (sweet sweet tea)
saturated solution
Saturated Solution
  • Solution that contains MAXIMUM amount of solute
  • For most solids & liquids, if you increase the temperature of the solvent you increase the solubility
  • Opposite for a GAS; Increase temperature of a gas & solubility decreases (some of gas escapes from solution)
unsaturated
Unsaturated
  • A solution that has not reached the limit of solute that will dissolve in it
supersaturated
Supersaturated
  • Contains more than standard amount of solute
  • Ex. Rain, fog, dew, frost, other precipitation- comes out of solution because there is too much!
alloy
Alloy
  • Solution of two or more metals
  • 14 Karat gold is an alloy that contains 14 atoms of gold out of every 24 atoms in the solution made up of silver and gold.
suspension
Suspension
  • A mixture in which the particles of one substance become scattered through another substance without dissolving
  • Ex. Salad dressing, blood, milk, whipped cream
apply what you have learned
Apply what you have learned....
  • The dissolved oxygen content of water is very critical to marine life.
  • How well does oxygen dissolve in water when the temperature of water increases?
  • Relate this to “thermal pollution,” a serious concern near power plants and other industries that release heated water into streams and rivers.
question
Question
  • What is the difference between melting and dissolving????
link to medicine perfluorocarbons
Link to Medicine-Perfluorocarbons
  • O2 not very soluble in water but very soluble in perfluorocarbons (20 % more than we breathe)
  • Researchers have found premature infants can breathe oxygen generated perfluorocarbons effectively
  • Adults benefit too! Cleans the lungs
  • Possible blood substitute?
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